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Open access

Boualem Remini, Bachir Achour, Cheikh Ouled Belkhir and Dahmane Baba Amar

Abstract

This paper describes for the first time an original foggara, different from the classical foggara (foggara of Gourara) which collects water from the Intercalary Continental aquifer. Located in the middle of the Mzab River, this hydraulic system called the Mzab foggara is intended to exploit the flood waters. Two missions were carried in 2009 and 2010 in the Mzab Valley to describe the hydraulic system. The Mzab foggara constitutes of a gallery of ovoid form 200 m long equipped with 9 air shafts and a 900 m long seguia. The foggara of the Mzab River can drain water flow of 5 m3·s-1 to irrigate western part of the palm plantation of Ghardaia (located 600 km south of Algiers).

Open access

Dariusz Mikielewicz and Paweł Szymański

Abstract

The combat potential of future warships will be directly related to the use of modern electronic devices being parts of advanced systems, such as, for instance, radar systems, fire aiming systems, fire detection systems, electric drive systems, and even electronic and radio-electronic weaponry, railguns and lasers, installed on these warships. The capacity and functionality of these devices is continually increasing, at decreasing mass and dimensions, which results in higher power consumption. Heat collection becomes a growing problem in operation of these devices.

The paper presents a concept of the use of the CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) cycle for passive heat collection from precise electronic devices used on warships. It also includes the description of the experimental rig and discussion of the results of laboratory tests performed on this rig and confirmed using the mathematical model developed by the authors.

Open access

Alexandra Ostmann, Sarah Schnurr and Pedro Martínez Arbizu

Abstract

Sediment samples and hydrographic conditions were studied at 28 stations around Iceland. At these sites, Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts were coducted to collect hydrographic data and multicorer casts were conducted to collect data on sediment characteristics including grain size distribution, carbon and nitrogen concentration, and chloroplastic pigment concentration. A total of 14 environmental predictors were used to model sediment characteristics around Iceland on regional scale. Two approaches were used: Multivariate Adaptation Regression Splines (MARS) and randomForest regression models. RandomForest outperformed MARS in predicting grain size distribution. MARS models had a greater tendency to over-and underpredict sediment values in areas outside the environmental envelope defined by the training dataset. We provide first GIS layers on sediment characteristics around Iceland, that can be used as predictors in future models. Although models performed well, more samples, especially from the shelf areas, will be needed to improve the models in future.

Open access

Ľudovít Kovanič

Abstract

This paper presents the results obtained from geodetic measurements and processing the data with the objective to determine geometrical parameters of an elevator shaft applying classical as well as modern approaches for obtaining the measured data. The intention was to verify the possibility to apply the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) method as a suitable, efficient and precise method for collecting spatial data.

Open access

Michał Czepkiewicz, Piotr Jankowski and Zbigniew Zwoliński

Abstract

Geo-questionnaires have been used in a variety of domains to collect public preferences, behavioural patterns, and spatially-explicit local knowledge, for academic research and environmental and urban planning. This paper provides an overview of the method focusing on the methodical characteristics of geo-questionnaires including software functions, types of collected data, and techniques of data analysis. The paper also discusses broader methodical issues related to the practice of deploying geo-questionnaires such as respondent selection and recruitment, representativeness, and data quality. The discussion of methodical issues is followed by an overview of the recent examples of geo-questionnaire applications in Poland, and the discussion of socio-technical aspects of geo-questionnaire use in spatial planning.

Open access

Danuta Strahl and Roman Sobczak

of economic growth by Joseph A. Schumpeter], PWN Press, Warsaw. Nowakowska A (2011) Regionalny wymiar procesów innowacji [Regional dimension of innovation processes], University of Łodź Press, Łódź. OECD-Eurostat (1997) Oslo Manual: The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Active. Proposed Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Technological Innovation Data, European Commission, OECD Publishing, Paris. OECD-Eurostat (2005) Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, 3rd Edition, OECD-Eurostat, Paris

Open access

Yorinao Shitaoka, Masaya Miyoshi, Junji Yamamoto, Tomoyuki Shibata, Tsuneto Nagatomo and Keiji Takemura

Abstract

We determined the eruption age of basaltic rocks by application of thermoluminescence (TL) method, which is often used for TL dating, to quartz. Mafic magma only rarely includes quartz because of their mutual disequilibration. The basaltic lavas reported herein include quartz as xenocrysts, as corroborated by their rounded or anhedral shape.

The basaltic lava used for this study is from the Oninomi monogenetic volcano in northern Kyushu, Japan. The volcano eruption was estimated as occurring 7.3–29 ka because the lava exists between two widespread tephras: Aira-Tanzawa ash (26–29 ka) and Kikai-Akahoya ash (7.3 ka). We succeed-ed in collecting ca. 200 mg of quartz by decomposition of 30 kg of the lava samples. TL measurements for the lava indicate the eruption age as 15.8 ± 2.5 ka, which is fairly consistent with the stratigraphical estimation. Although the TL method has played a considerable part in constraining the timescale of Quaternary events, its application has been limited to silicic samples. The present result demonstrates the availability of quartz for dating even of mafic rock.

Open access

Muh Aris Marfai

Abstract

. Dynamic environment in coastal area, especially due to coastal erosion process, has negative impact on human environment. Sayung coastal area, located in Central Java-Indonesia, has experienced severe impact of coastal erosion. As the result of the coastal erosion, hundreds of settlement located in coastal area has been destructed. Moreover, fishponds as the land use dominated in the coastal area also has been severely destroyed. Besides the coastal erosion, increasing of inundated area due to sea level rise also threaten the local community. Although devastating impact suffering the coastal area, the people of Tambaksari, as the part of Sayung area, decided to live and adapt with the coastal erosion. This paper aims to identify the coastal erosion and understand adaptation strategies held by the local community related to reduce the impact of the coastal erosion. Based on this research, various adaptation strategies has been identified, namely (1) Planting mangrove alongside the shoreline, (2) elevating the ground level, (3) building staged house, (4) utilizing deep well for freshwater supply, (5), maintaining social interaction with mainland community, (6) Collecting fish from the mangrove as the food, and (7) changing work into the tourism sector.

Open access

Aneta Marek and Małgorzata Wieczorek

Abstract

The aim of the article is an analysis of tourist traffic in the Aconcagua massif, one of the most popular peaks of the Seven Summits. On the basis of statistical data, the tourist traffic was analysed in a temporal and spatial perspective. The applied data made it possible to capture the dynamics of visits in the period 2000/2001 – 2012/2013 and with a breakdown into months, which helped analyse the tourist traffic in this area. In each of the analysed periods, January dominates. Data concerning the origin of tourists according to countries and continents, their age, gender and type of mountaineering activity were also taken into account. Most tourists came from Argentina, the USA and Germany. These are people of age groups 21–30 (33%) and 31–40 (31%). Men account for over 75% of visitors. The favourite mountaineering activity is climbing (about 60%). Aconcagua has invariably been a very popular peak among tourists and climbers. It is a place for training and acclimatisation for alpinists, participating in Himalayan expeditions and climbers collecting peaks of the Seven Summits.

Open access

Gábor Ungvári, Zsolt Jolánkai, András Kis and Zsolt Kozma

Abstract

In many years excess water inundations generate a major obstacle to farming in the lowland part of Hungary, including the Marosszög area. Diverting water to large distances requires an infrastructure that is costly to develop and maintain. Alternatively, low-lying local land segments could be withdrawn from cultivation and utilized to collect the surplus water. The Ecological Focus Area (EFA) requirement of the EU points to the same direction: it requires that 5% of arable land is converted to other, ecologically more beneficial uses. During the research project it was tested if it is feasible to apply a novel economic policy instrument, an auction to trade land use change obligations, to achieve the EFA requirement in a cost effective way through the cooperation of farmers, while also creating a practical solution to manage the seasonal surplus water cover on land. The research was carried out in an interdisciplinary way: a dynamically coupled fully integrated hydrological model, including surface and subsurface modules, was applied by engineers to better understand the interconnections of land use, local hydrology and the role of the water diversion infrastructure; while a pilot auction exercise was conducted by economists with the participation of farmers to understand if cost reductions can be achieved through cooperation, as opposed to individual fulfilment of EFA obligations. The analysis also revealed which segments of the water diversion network are economic to maintain. It was confirmed that it is possible to improve local water management and satisfy the EFA requirements at a reduced cost if appropriate economic incentives are applied to trigger the cooperation of farmers.