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Joanna A. Pawłowicz and Elżbieta Szafranko

Abstract

3D scanning is the most modern method of unlimited possibilities based on laser technology. Its main advantage is the speed of obtaining large amounts of data in a very short time, which gives a huge advantage over existing methods of the measuring. Scanning provides opportunities for use in engineering works, geodetic and the inventory of buildings and objects of a high complexity, as well as in studies of damage or deformation of the structure. 3D scanner is a device, which with high accuracy collects data about the shape and texture of the tested object and its surroundings in the form of a point cloud.

Open access

Andrzej Jędrczak

Abstract

In 2016, in EU Member States (EU), only less than half of the biowaste produced, i.e. around 40 million tonnes, was used to produce compost and, to some extent, biogas. Most of it was still incinerated or stored together with other waste. On 14 June 2018, amendments to 6 directives on waste management were published. One of the most important changes introduced in the Waste Framework Directive is the obligation for Member States to recycle biowaste at source or selectively collect it for composting or fermentation by 31 December 2023 at the latest. The article presents the potential of biowaste and its use for the production of compost and changes in directives concerning the handling of biowaste, which will shape the directions of development of this waste management in the EU after 2020. The composting and fermentation processes of biowaste were also compared, defining their advantages and disadvantages. This information can be helpful in the selection of technologies for its processing, making decisions on the construction of new or modernization of existing installations.