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Krzysztof Kupiec and Monika Gwadera

Abstract

This work refers to the modelling of heat transfer in horizontal ground heat exchangers. For different conditions of collecting heat from the ground and different boundary condition profiles of temperature in the ground were found, and temporal variations of heat flux transferred between the ground surface and its interior were determined. It was taken into account that this flux results from several different mechanisms of heat transfer: convective, radiative, and that connected with moisture evaporation. It was calculated that ground temperature at great depths is greater than the average annual ambient temperature.

Open access

Gorzysław Poleszczuk, Zdeňka Svobodová, Anna Bucior-Kwaczyńska and Tymoteusz Miller

Abstract

After presentation of the characteristics of a water reservoir in CaCO3 excavation pit, called the Turkusowe Lake, situated in the Wolin National Park on the Wolin Island, available results of the analyses referring to the quality of surface water of this water reservoir and being carried out since 1986 as well as those of own studies being carried out from 1999 to 2010 were gathered, collecting this way a research material covering the quarter-century 1986-2010. It was shown that the Turkusowe Lake is a water reservoir being resistant by nature to eutrophication (lake basin development and depth, surrounding by the heights adhering to it, and presence of CaCO3 building the lake basin), whereas an increase in the trophic level and development of eutrophication phenomena in the form of weak phytoplankton blooms being observed, particularly in 2005-2010, is connected with increased anthropogenic pressure in the form of direct discharge of municipal sewage to the lake and waste-water to the soil in the alimentation zone of underground waters feeding this lake. The extent of anthropogenic pressure was so big that it started to prevail over the natural processes limiting an increase in the trophic level in this lake.

Open access

Agnieszka Stec and Daniel Słyś

Abstract

After presentation of the characteristics of a water reservoir in CaCO3 excavation pit, called the Turkusowe Lake, situated in the Wolin National Park on the Wolin Island, available results of the analyses referring to the quality of surface water of this water reservoir and being carried out since 1986 as well as those of own studies being carried out from 1999 to 2010 were gathered, collecting this way a research material covering the quarter-century 1986-2010. It was shown that the Turkusowe Lake is a water reservoir being resistant by nature to eutrophication (lake basin development and depth, surrounding by the heights adhering to it, and presence of CaCO3 building the lake basin), whereas an increase in the trophic level and development of eutrophication phenomena in the form of weak phytoplankton blooms being observed, particularly in 2005-2010, is connected with increased anthropogenic pressure in the form of direct discharge of municipal sewage to the lake and waste-water to the soil in the alimentation zone of underground waters feeding this lake. The extent of anthropogenic pressure was so big that it started to prevail over the natural processes limiting an increase in the trophic level in this lake.

Open access

Aleksandra Ziemińska-Stolarska, Janusz Adamiec, Mirosław Imbierowicz, Ewa Imbierowicz, Marcin Jaskulski, Aleksander Szmidt and Ireneusz Zbiciński

Abstract

The paper presents methodology of accurate mobile measurements of water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll “a” concentration, ammonium ion concentration, conductivity, pH and blue-green algae content in water. The measurements (probe EXO 2, YSI, USA) were made on various depths of probe immersion (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 m) and at different towing speeds of the probe (approx. 5.4 and 9.0 km/h). Static measurements carried out on the same route provided reference values for the measurements in motion to compare the repeatability of static and mobile methods. The tests were also evaluated by observation of probe behavior in motion, e.g. water disturbance intensity, access of light (sun rays) to the sensors. Statistical tests confirmed that the mean values of water quality parameters from mobile measurements with the speed of 5.4 km/h at the depth 1.5 m does not differ from the stationary measurements. Results of statistical analysis prove that water quality parameters can be measured accurately keeping established speed of towing the probe at the fixed depth. Methodology of mobile measurements elaborated in the frame of this work allows to collect vast number of data which can be used to obtain GIS point maps of water quality parameters in large water bodies.

Open access

Katarzyna Pawęska, Aleksandra Bawiec and Krzysztof Pulikowski

. Water Res. 2006;40:3151-3166. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2006.07.012. [7] Paruch AM. Preservation of nutrients during long-term storage of source-separated yellowwater. Water Sci Technol. 2012;66(4):804-809. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.244. [8] Pronk W, Kone D. Options for urine treatment in developing countries. Desalination 2009;248:360-368. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2008.05.076. [9] Udert KM, Larsen TA, Gujer W. Biologically induced precipitation in urine-collecting systems and urinal traps. Water Sci Technol.: Water Supply. 2003;3:71-78. DOI: 10