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Open access

Barbara Batóg and Katarzyna Wawrzyniak

Models With Varying Parameters as A Tool to Classify Polish Voivodships in 2002-2008

One of the often used measures of economic development is gross domestic product per capita. In Poland the Main Statistical Office collects the data on this variable on several levels of aggregation. The paper shows the application of panel data models in order to classify Polish voivodships according to the level of economic development. As explained variable the regional GDP per capita was used and such variables as structure of employees, unemployment rate or retail sales per capita were the explaining variables. As a result the groups of voivodships with similar pattern of economic development were distinguished.

Open access

Tomasz Zdziebko

Abstract

Knowledge of users’ preferences are of high value for every e-commerce website. It can be used to improve customers’ loyalty by presenting personalized products’ recommendations. A user’s interest in a particular product can be estimated by observing his or her behaviors. Implicit methods are less accurate than the explicit ones, but implicit observation is done without interruption of having to give ratings for viewed items. This article presents results of e-commerce customers’ preference identification study. During the study the author’s extension for FireFox browser was used to collect participants’ behavior and preference data. Based on them over thirty implicit indicators were calculated. As a final result the decision tree model for prediction of e-customer products preference was build.

Open access

Małgorzata Renigier-Biłozor, Andrzej Biłozor and Agnieszka Napiórkowska-Baryła

Abstract

This paper presents a streamlined sub-system of decision-making in a real estate market with incomplete data. As we currently observe, various entities collect data and use databases, which entails a problem with their quality and completeness. This results from the specifics of the real estate market, particularly from the nature of the available information, access to it and integral uncertainty.

In the first part of this paper, we will present substantive guidelines for the development of a procedure for supplementing missing information. Afterwards, in order to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the procedure, an implementation simulation will be conducted on the selected example. We would like to emphasize that all decisions are made under the conditions of an information gap.

Open access

Anita Kwartnik-Pruc

Abstract

The register of land and buildings is an essential source of information on real estate. The use of cadastral data in land management is manifold, starting from spatial planning, through the calculation of taxes, the designation of real estate in land and mortgage registers, and finally, in real estate management. The accuracy of information from public records, i.e. the register of land and buildings, obtained by entities managing property has a direct impact on the correctness of the conducted processes of land management. Data necessary to determine the position of boundaries of cadastral parcels are taken from surveying documentation accepted into the national geodetic and cartographic resource database. If there is no such documentation, or the data contained therein are not reliable, information on the boundaries of cadastral parcels are obtained by means of field or photogrammetric surveys, preceded by the determination of the course of these boundaries.

The present article analyzes the requirements of legislature regarding real estate data contained in the register of land and buildings. The possibility of capturing such information using an innovative method of laser scanning was also identified and tested. The object of the research was a fragment of the Old Town in Cracow, which had previously been covered by classical surveying. Based on the national geodetic control points and in relation to the National Spatial Reference System, with reference to GNSS, surveys of buildings arranged in a compact development were performed with a terrestrial laser scanner in order to compare the accuracy of determining real estate boundaries using these two methods. Possibilities of collecting data on the developed real properties that could be incorporated into the 3D cadastre in the future were identified and the quality of the obtained information was rated.

Open access

Sabina Źróbek, Siarhei Manzhynski, Elżbieta Zysk and Yauheni Rassokha

Abstract

Economic and financial instruments are a very important group of tools for supporting local entrepreneurship. The broadest group among them are local taxes. Real estate taxes are considered by local governments, on the one hand, as a tool for promoting the effective development of real estate, and on the other, as a reliable source of income to the local budget.

The functioning of every tax system can be analyzed by applying different criteria. The most typically evaluated criteria are: economic efficiency, equity, transparency, collectability and revenue production. These criteria are often in conflict with one another, one of the reasons for this fact being, according to the research conducted by the authors of this paper, the base of taxation. It is generally believed that the value of real property is a much more reliable tax basis than its size.

It was our intention to verify this opinion. Having reviewed the available literature and thoroughly analyzed the Polish and Belarussian real estate tax systems, we concluded that the first of the two systems has no definite advantages over the other. For example, the ad valorem tax better stimulates intensive use of land, but, on the other hand, may negatively affect its sustainable development. The main reason for this fact is the specificity of real estate as the object of taxation. The object of taxation exists regardless of its economic state and performance, thus taxes have to be paid whether or not there is any income or profit. Given the nature and possible functions of real estate and the priorities of local authorities, the concept of just taxation is also socially relative.

Open access

Dominik Rozkrut

.30-7. Milligan, G. & Cooper, M. (1985). An examination of procedures for determining the number of clusters in a data set. Psychometrika, 50 (2), 159-179. OECD, Eurostat - Statistical Office of the European Communities (2005). Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, 3rd Edition, The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities. Paris/Luxembourg: OECD Publishing. OECD (2008). OECD Framework for Effective and Efficient Environmental Policies. Retrieved May 1, 2012, www.oecd.org/dataoecd/39/19/41644480.pdf

Open access

Neven Šerić, Silvija Vitner Marković and Svemir Tamari Tutnjević

Marketing Co., 2013. Japan Tourism Marketing Co. Retrieved August, 2013, from http://www.tourism.jp/en/ Ladki, S. M., and El Meouchi, P., 2013. Assessment of Coastal Resort Development: The Case of Lebanon. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 1(1), 36-43. Ma, S., 2011. Marketing Strategies to Attract Japanese Tourists to the UNESCO World Heritage Site: Xiannv Mountain in China. (MA Thesis), Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University. Markwell, K., and Basche, K., 1998. Using personal diaries to collect dana. Annals of

Open access

Marek Tomaszewski

. Luo, X., Rindfleisch, A. & Tse, D. (2007). Working with rivals: the impact of competitor alliances on financial performance. Journal of Marketing Research, 44. Madhavan, R., Gnyawali, D.R. & He, J. (2004). Two’s company, three’s a crowd? Triads in cooperative-competitive networks. Academy of Management Journal, 47. Merrifield, D.B. (2007). Strategic Collaborations - Essence of Survival. Research Technology Management, 50 (2). Oslo Manual (2005). Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation

Open access

Ewa Okoń-Horodyńska and Anna Zachorowska-Mazurkiewicz

://mazowia.eu/informacje-prasowe/przedsiebiorczosc-jest-kobieta-fundusze-unijne-efektywnym-wsparciem-kobiecych-biznesow.html McMaster, R., 2008. Beware Those Offering “Gold Standards”: Evidence-Based Medicine and the Potential for Institutional Change in Clinical-Medical Provision. Journal of Economic Issues, 42 (4), 885-912. Millward, L., and Freeman, H., 2002. Role Expectations as Constraints to Innovation: The Case of Female Manager. Creativity Research Journal, 14 (1), 93-109. Morris, L., 2006. Permanent Innovation. Retrieved 15 February 2014, from www.permanentinnovation.com OECD, 2005. Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, 3rd

Open access

Aleksandra Dragin, Aleksandra Lazarević and Maja Mijatov

Abstract

This paper deals with the position of tourist escorts in Serbia, primarily in a domain of business ethics. Employees’ behaviour is important aspect of gaining the business stability, which is reflecting the importance of business ethics for reaching the prosperity within specific organisation, together with the improvement of business performances reflected in the form of financial indicators. The main results of the research are related to attitudes of tourist escorts from Serbia regarding the business ethics in a scope of their work. Historical method, together with a field research (work of one co-author within the position of tourist escort) and a research in the form of interviews were used for data collecting procedure. Furthermore, descriptive and analytical-synthetic methods were used in data processing and during the interpretation of the gained results. Research results could be useful in practical terms to the whole tourism industry, especially to tourist agencies, tourist escorts and tourist guides.