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Gert Pickel and Cemal Öztürk

size, experience with democracy, and socioeconomic development), but assume that the support for a Muslim ban is caused by similar social–psychological determinant patterns ( Pickel 2016 ). For the societal level, we used population means of the scales that we constructed for our individual-level regressions ( Table 1 ). The European Social Survey collects its data by means of a random selection scheme. An aggregation of individual-level data therefore allows us to describe the average frequency of contacts and prevalence of anti-Muslim attitudes in European