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Open access

Tibor Jager and Andy Rupp


We formalize and construct black-box accumulation (BBA), a useful building block for numerous important user-centric protocols including loyalty systems, refund systems, and incentive systems (as, e.g., employed in participatory sensing and vehicle-to-grid scenarios). A core requirement all these systems share is a mechanism to let users collect and sum up values (call it incentives, bonus points, reputation points, etc.) issued by some other parties in a privacy-preserving way such that curious operators may not be able to link the different transactions of a user. At the same time, a group of malicious users may not be able to cheat the system by pretending to have collected a higher amount than what was actually issued to them.

As a first contribution, we fully formalize the core functionality and properties of this important building block. Furthermore, we present a generic and non-interactive construction of a BBA system based on homomorphic commitments, digital signatures, and non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge. For our construction, we formally prove security and privacy properties. Finally, we propose a concrete instantiation of our construction using Groth-Sahai commitments and proofs as well as the optimal structure-preserving signature scheme of Abe et al. and analyze its efficiency.

Open access

Liying Yang

. jointly constructed the world’s first Institutional Repository (IR) to collect, store and share academic outputs. In the recent decade, the integrated research information systems at the national level have become prevalent internationally, especially in Nordic countries. In those systems, often called Current Research Information System (CRIS), publication records, such as journal articles, monographs, etc., are the important data sources, to be used for research project tracking and, currently, to provide comprehensive services for research management. The Norwegian

Open access

have many demands. Examples of questions that are hard to answer nowadays include: automatically collecting the method(s) used in a study, detecting the main finding(s) of a study (assuming there is one), identifying implicit information, automatically constructing training sets for automated learning, finding all capitalized words in a text, detecting the structure of papers, and automatic function recognition. In addition, merging heterogeneous data has been mentioned, and a possible answer was provided in the sense that using ontologies may provide a step towards

Open access

Gary Marchionini

datasets, making and evaluating inferences from data, and invent new models for analyzing meaning and making predictions based on data. Statistical theory and techniques contribute to data science by informing decisions about what data to collect or include in analysis (e.g. sampling), providing statistical procedures that may be automated, and assessing efficacy of results (e.g. error estimation). Computer science first emerged in the first part of the 20 th century as mathematicians and physicists engineered machines that counted and compared data at speeds well

Open access

Mike Thelwall

with search engine API queries rather than queries for specific websites (e.g., using Webometric Analyst ). This makes it possible to collect large scale data from the general Web for webometrics. Indicators derived from the online book site Google Books are a special case because Google Books has an API that is useful for collecting data ( Kousha & Thelwall, 2015a ) even though Google Books not a social website. Website log data can also give useful and somewhat similar information ( Bollen et al., 2009 ) but few researchers are able to

Open access

Peiling Wang, Sukjin You, Rath Manasa and Dietmar Wolfram

has also provided useful tools to collect data to help in the analysis of these processes. Led by the European Union, Open Science is moving towards the ambitious goal “to open access to scientific publications as the default option by 2020” ( Council of the European Union, 2016 , p. 12; Enserink, 2016 ). Publications for Open Access will still need peer review. In a recent article in Nature , Rennie (2016) states that OPR provides a more ethical approach to peer review and calls for rigorous studies to compare various models (open, blind, pre- and post

Open access

Il-Yeol Song and Yongjun Zhu

communicate with the elderly for any important messages via a smart phone. As illustrated in this example, an innovative application utilizes a fusion of multiple technologies. It is possible to create a new service or business by collecting data through IoT sensors, storing it in the Cloud, and analyzing it through artificial intelligence and big data analytics. A recent paradigm that explains the super-connected industry that fuses multiple technologies to manufacturing is termed the fourth Industrial Revolution, also called “IR 4.0” or “Industry 4.0.” The German

Open access

Ronald Rousseau

1 Introduction A publication suffering from delayed recognition is a publication that received very little attention shortly after publication, but received recognition later. Stephen Cole proposed to use citations as a proxy for recognition ( Cole, 1970 ). Although recognition can be given in many ways—receiving tenure is another important way in which scientists are recognized for their achievements—collecting received citations is the most practiced way to operationalize the notion of delayed recognition. This contribution is not meant as a review of the

Open access

Frederique Lang, Diego Chavarro and Yuxian Liu

“Google,” the records are related to four different objects. The first one refers to a big machine with a long arm that is used by builders to lift and move heavy things. The second is a type of tall bird that has a long neck and long legs and lives near water. The third is a company, and finally the fourth is a fluid system. This implies that if somebody aims to collect data about a “crane,” whichever definition the researcher is interested in, they will end up collecting data about four different objects. In this paper, we emphasize the care that must be taken when

Open access

Jiao Li, Si Zheng, Hongyu Kang, Zhen Hou and Qing Qian

. Figure 2 shows the number of PMC articles related to the TCGA-related articles published from 2008 to 2015, and there were over 1,600 TCGA articles published in 2014. The 2015 reduction is due to data incompleteness as of September, 2015. TCGA data accumulation and data sharing contributed to the significant increase in TCGA publications. Phase I of the TCGA program (a 3-year pilot study) aimed to collect cancer tissues, process the biospecimen, apply high-throughput platforms to identify cancer genomic information, and analyze genetic changes involved in the cancer