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Rafał Kobis

Book, whose name would come from the name of the desert. Most of Muhammaďs companions, as well as the Prophet himself, came from one of these two cities. Even the first great dynasty of Caliphs – the Umayyad – were descended from the Arab urban elite of Mecca ( Marsham 2016 : 1–5). Along with the development of the empire created by the Arabs, the role of cities further increased. Cities such as al-Ba srah or al-Kufah in modern Iraq and al-Fustat in Egypt served as military camps from which further conquest was conducted ( Southall 2003 : 212). One of the main