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Varga Réka-Izabella and Kovács Judit

-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes in 27 countries in Europe. Resuscitation . 2016,105:188-194. 4. Kleinman ME, Goldberger ZD, Rea T, Swor RA, Bobrow BJ, Brennan EE et al. 2017 American Heart Association Focused Update on Adult Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality: An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation . 2018,137:e7-e13 5. Chair SY, Hung MS, Lui JC, Lee DT, Shiu IY, Choi KC. Public knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in

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Maya D. Markova, Irina V. Chakarova, Ralitsa S. Zhivkova, Venera P. Nikolova, Valentina P. Hadzhinesheva and Stefka M. Delimitreva

testicular biopsies of infertile patients. Hum Reprod. 1997;12(10):2154-8. 29. Mrazek M, Fulka J Jr. Failure of oocyte maturation: possible mechanisms for oocyte maturation arrest. Hum Reprod. 2003;18(11):2249-52. 30. Schmiady H, Neitzel H. Arrest of human oocytes during meiosis I in two sisters of consanguineous parents: first evidence for an autosomal recessive trait in human infertility: Case report. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(10):2556-9. 31. Nikolova V, Chakarova I, Zhivkova R, Markova M, Dimitrov R, Delimitreva S. [Comparison of in vitro matured oocytes

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Souad Hamimed, Nadji Boulebda, Hocine Laouer and Abdelmalik Belkhiri

. Anacyclus Pyrethrum extract exerts anticancer activities on the human colorectal cancer cell line (HCT) by targeting apoptosis, metastasis and cell cycle arrest. J Gastrointest Cancer . 2017;48(4):333-40. 19. McLaughlin JL. Assays for bioactivity. In: Hostettmann K (Ed), Methods in Plant Biochemistry, Vol.6 , London: Academic Press; 1991:1-33. 20. Wagner H, Bladt S. Plant drug analysis: a thin layer chromatography atlas . 2 edition. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2011. 21. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis

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Daniel Zaluski, Helena Danuta Smolarz and Anna Bogucka-Kocka

. Li Z.F. et al.: Two diketopiperazines from Acanthopanax senticosus Harms. J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res. 12, 51-55, 2010. 10. Liu W. (2011). Traditional herbal medicine research methods. New Jersey:John Wiley&Sons. 11. Panossian A.: Stimulating effect of adaptogens: An overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration.Phytother. Res. 19(10), 819-838, 2005. 12. Shan B.E. et al.: Chinese medicinal herb, Acanthopanax gracilistylus, extract induces cell cycle arrest of human tumor cells

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Elena Belousova, Vladimir Sukhorukov, Marina Dorofeeva, Lev Shagam and Dmitrii V. Vlodavetz

Surveillance and Management: Recommendations of the 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis . Pediatr. Neurol., 2013, 49: 255–265. Neul J.L.: The relationship of Rett syndrome and MECP2 disorders to autism . Dialogues Clin. Neurosci., 2012, 14: 253–262. Philippart M.: Rett syndrome associated with tuberous sclerosis in a male and in a female: evidence for arrested motor and mental development . Am. J. Med. Genet., 1993, 48: 229–230. Ricciardi S., Boggio E.M., Grosso S., Lonetti G., Forlani G., Stefanelli G. et al.: Reduced AKT/mTOR signaling and protein

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Miroslaw Aleksander Slawinski, Ewelina Wawryk-Gawda, Michal Konrad Zarobkiewicz, Pawel Halczuk and Barbara Jodlowska-Jedrych

Cardiovascular Disease. Toxicol Res. 2011 Mar 1;27(1):7-10. 22. Berger AJ, Alford K. Cardiac arrest in a young man following excess consumption of caffeinated “energy drinks.” Med J Aust. 2009 Jan 5;190(1):41-3. 23. Xu Y, Saini H, Zhang M, Elimban V, Dhalla N. MAPK activation and apoptotic alterations in hearts subjected to calcium paradox are attenuated by taurine. Cardiovasc Res. 2006 Oct 1;72(1):163-74. 24. Oriyanhan W, Yamazaki K, Miwa S, Takaba K, Ikeda T, Komeda M. Taurine prevents myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis

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Władysław Lasoń, Joanna Ślusarczyk, Magdalena Regulska, Monika Leśkiewicz and Agnieszka Basta-Kaim

Y. et al.: Minocycline inhibits brain inflammation and attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus . Neuroscience, 2015, 287: 144–156. White H.S., Woodbury D.M., Chen C.F., Kemp J.W., Chow S.Y., Yen-Chow Y.C.: Role of glial cation and anion transport mechanisms in etiology and arrest of seizures . Advances in Neurology, 1986, 44: 695–712. Wyatt S.K., Witt T., Barbaro N.M., Cohen-Gadol A.A., Brewster A.L.: Enhanced classical complement pathway activation and altered phagocytosis signaling molecules in

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Magdalena Chrościńska-Krawczyk, Magdalena Wałek, Bożydar Tylus and Stanisław J. Czuczwar

–435. Crumrine R.C., Bergstrand K., Cooper A.T., Faison W.L., Cooper B.R.: Lamotrigine protects hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemic damage after cardiac arrest . Stroke, 1997, 28: 2230–2236. discussion 2237. Curia G., Longo D., Biagini G., Jones R.S.G., Avoli M.: The pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy . J. Neurosci. Methods, 2008, 172: 143–157. Czapinski P., Blaszczyk B., Czuczwar S.J.: Mechanisms of action of antiepileptic drugs . Curr. Top. Med. Chem., 2005, 5: 3–14. Czuczwar P., Kaczmarczyk P., Czuczwar S.J.: New experimental data on the

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Jerzy Majkowski

.N.: Epileptic cardiac arrhythmia: sinoatrial arrest in two patients. A potential cause of sudden death in epilepsy. Epilepsia, 1983, 24: 248. Kennebäck G., Bergfeldt L., Vallin H., Tomson T., Edhag O.: Electrophysiologic effect and clinical hazards of carbamazepine teatment for neurologic disorders in patient with abnormalities of the cardiac conduction system . Am. Heart J., 1991, 121: 1421–1429. Kinney H.C., Richerson G.B., Dymecki S.M., Darnall R.A., Nattie E.E.: The brainstem and serotonin in the sudden infant death syndrome . Annu. Rev. Pathol., 2009, 4

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Agnieszka Pedrycz and Agnieszka Kramkowska

Abstract

Defects in the process of degradation of unneeded cellular proteins underlie many diseases. This article discusses one of the most important systems of removal of abnormal proteins. It describes the process of ubiquitination of proteins for proteasome degradation. It also describes the structure of the 26S and 20S proteasomes and the mechanism of ubiquitin-proteasome system. Proteasome proteolytic system is highly specialized and organized. Protease-proteasome 26S is particularly important for proper cell functioning. It recognizes and degrades marked proteins. Inhibition of proteasome pathway leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

Efficient degradation of cellular proteins by UPS (the ubiquitin - proteasome system) - is important for signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, response to stress and the activity control of cell receptors.

The development of many diseases has its origin in the dysfunction of the UPS route. This group includes diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, immune-mediated diseases and infectious diseases. Development of effective methods for pharmacological intervention in the functioning of this system has become a great challenge. The use of specific, low molecular-weight proteasome inhibitors and enzymes catalyzing the ubiquitination gives hope for new, targeted therapies.