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Szymon Świerkosz, Zbigniew Nowak and Anna Pacyna

Abstract

Competitive sport causes physiological changes called athlete’s heart. In most cases echocardiographic parameters return to normal after cessation of career. Sudden cardiac death may occur in persons with previously diagnosed or undiagnosed heart disease. Mortality is 1-3 people/100,000. The main reasons for death is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and commotio cordis. In cardiomyopathy coronary vasculature does not increase proportionately to heart mass. In the case of extreme physical effort areas of poor blood supply can cause dangerous arrhythmias. Commotio cordis is caused by by blunt trauma to the thorax, which induces ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest without structural damage.

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Curtis A. Fogel

. September 1. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/02/sports/hockey/deaths-of-three-nhl-players-raises-a-deadly-riddle.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. Cobb, C. (2014). “Hockey Coach Kelly Jones Admits to Sexually Abusing Children.” Ottawa Citizen. April 6. http://www.ottawacitizen.com/news/Hockey+coach+Kelly+Jones+admits+sexually+abusing+children/9710363/story.ht ml. Criger, E. (2014). “Streetsville Hockey Coach Arrested in 90s Sexual Assault.” City News Toronto. May 7. http://www.citynews.ca/2014/05/07/streetsville-hockey-coach-arrested-in-90s-sexual-assault/. Duhatschek, E

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Monika Piątkowska and Jolanta Żyśko

). Vancouver 2010 - The Importance of Protecting the Olympic Brand. Retrieved 2010.11.20, from http://www.imakenews.com/eletra/gow.cfm?z=iln%2C197649%2C0%2C1633570%2Cb11 World Cup 2010: Women arrested over ‘ambush marketing’ freed on bail. (2010). www.guardian.co.uk

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Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Małgorzata Żychowska, Łukasz Radzimiński, Anna Konieczna and Jakub Kortas

creatine kinase MB and creatine kinase BB-isoenzyme fractions after ultra-marathon running. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1983; 52: 75-79 Nuviala RJ, Roda L, Lapieza MG, Boned B, Giner A. Serum enzymes activities at rest and after a marathon race. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1992; 32(2): 180-6 Rapoport BI. Metabolic factors limiting performance in marathon runners. PLoS Comput Biol, 2010; 21; 6(10) Roberts WO, Roberts DM, Lunos S. Marathon related cardiac arrest risk differences in men and women. Br J Sports Med, 2013; 47(3): 168

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Randy L Aldret, Brittany A Trahan, Greggory Davis, Brian Campbell and David M Bellar

. Hamstring injuries are thought to occur during the terminal phase of the gait cycle due to large eccentric forces necessary to arrest the swing of the lower leg in preparation for ground contact ( Bellar et al., 2014 ). The most common injury was hamstring strain, which was prevalently found among those participating in speed-strength events that included sprints ( Makaruk et al., 2010 ). Makaruk et al. (2010) identified many factors that increased the risk of hamstring strains including higher muscle tone, too high with regard to stiffness of the muscles when their