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Andrzej Wincewicz, Piotr Woltanowski, Stanisław Sulkowski and Jolanta Małyszko
Jakub Chlebowski (Jakub Frydman) (1905-1969) was a distinguished professor of internal medicine and skillful organizer of health care system in Bialystok region in the North east Poland. He graduated medicine in 1929 and worked at local university in prewar Vilnius. During World War Two, arrested by the Soviets and exiled to Siberian work camps he managed to return to Poland with Kosciuszko Division of Polish Army. Then, he continued to serve as a military and university medical doctor in Cracow and Lodz, finally to take over position of director of Internal Diseases Department in 1951 in Bialystok, holding an office of rector magnificus of Medical University of Bialystok from 1959 to 1962. Chlebowski trained generations of internal medicine specialists, who later became eminent representatives of emerging branches of internal medicine as distinct subspecialties in the field of cardiology, endocrinology and gastroenterology in Bialystok. In course of anti-Semitic campaign during March Events in 1968, he was disposed from the post of director of the university hospital department. Constantly harassed, he immigrated with the family to Israel to die in public traffic accident in 1969. Jakub Frydman, who survived not only hunger of food, but also metaphorical “hunger of humanity” during World War Two, turned out to be as good and useful as daily bread for Polish community after wartime. He was so devoted in this action, that he even changed his surname into Chlebowski (Polish: Chleb=English: Bread). In this way, due to similar experience and experience-shaped mentality, Chlebowski could be counted among medical authorities of the time, the individuals with such a high moral standard as Janusz Korczak (1878 or 1879-1942) or Julian Kramsztyk (1851-1926).
Erman Syarif, Ach. Fatchan, Sumarmi and I Komang Astina
Punggawa-sawi is a member in fishing communities patorani, specifically fishermen hunt flying fish and flying fish egg collectors. The purpose of this research is: (1) describe the role of punggawa-sawi in religious rituals before going to sea, and (2) describe the role of punggawa-sawi in the process of catching the flying fish and eggs. This type of research is qualitative ethnographic approach. The research location in Takalar and the subject of research is punggawa and sawi greens in conserving flying fish resources. Data retrieval is conducted through observation, interview and documentation. The validity of the data carried out through the technique of triangulation, member check and audit trail. The results of the study suggesting that the role of punggawa-sawi greens flying fish in preserving resources, seen in two forms namely: (1) a role in religious rituals for safety and respect for the ruler of the sea. The ritual performed in the District Galesong coastal and island Sanrobengi. The ritual is, anynyikko pakkaja, appakruru bale-bale, apparek kalomping, annisik biseang, and songkobala. (2) The role of punggawa-sawi in the process of fly fishing visible in the form of arrest strategies using traditional fishing gear pakkaja and bale-bale. Measures to preserve the flying fish resources namely by letting the eggs are maturing gonat to rebreed being a flying fish.
The paper focuses on fiscal decentralization, public expenditure management and human capital development in Nigeria. It presents a synergical relationship/nexus between fiscal decentralization, public expenditure management and human capital development and sees fiscal decentralization as an imperative necessity of empowering levels of government with financial resources to bring government closer to the people by the rendition of social services to people within their jurisdictions. The paper further argues that assigned fiscal responsibilities of governmental agencies must be backed up with prudent management of public expenditure (recurrent and capital) which should be aptly targeted at developing the human resources considered as the kingpin of true developmental efforts in any society. Nigeria, a social formation with an estimated population of 180 million persons and the largest economy in Africa has consistently failed in fostering the development of its human capital through budgetary allocations and implementation, fiscal decentralization and public expenditure management. To arrest the trend, the paper calls for a sustained commitment on the part of government in the development of the nation’s resources through sustained budgetary allocations in education, health, agriculture, infrastructural development, training and retraining of workers, power, science and technology and execution of people oriented public programmes/projects.
Jacobin terrorism (1793-1794) at the time of the revolution starts with the removal of the faction leaders with the Giron agreement (02/06/1793) and ends with the arrest of Robespierre by the members of the 9th Thermidor (27.07.1794 ). This analysis can be summarized as follows: first choice of violence as a means to create conditions that will allow operations as described in political terms century of the 20's and the state intervention in the field and in the civil society. Secondly, addresses the needs of the war that has being transformed and developed from a parallel to a civil war and pleaded for rapid awakening of the national consciousness of the leadership of the Jacobins, and finally, the risk of counter- revolution, the need to consolidate a 'point of no return'. A similar phenomenon of computation of political and economic crime appears that emerged in the Soviet Union after 1918. However, we must not forget that the Court Revolutionary gave a series of decisions of acquittal, which gives the impression-taste of the doubt to the imposition of terror by the Jacobins in France. During the French Revolution, parliamentarism took place in practice. Sets were simply places where they gather to share ideas and political views of the same Club. Consequently, the exercise of central policy was a matter of immense size and variety. If added, on the one hand the fall of the throne of the monarch until the formation of the Public Salvation Committee has created a "vacuum" of power and the fact that France was at war, then it becomes clear why it was chosen and designed practice terrorism as the only efficient (estimated political) policy.
Chinyere Theresa Nwaoga, Anuli B. Okoli and Favour C. Uroko
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Zawiyah Mohd Zain, Zaheruddin Othman, Zalinah Ahmad, Mohd Fitri Abdul Rahman, Mohd Na’iem Ajis, Kamaruddin Ngah and Mohammad Agus Yusoff
, continuing tensions. Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World studies 19(2): 25-53.
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Ooi Kee Beng. (2009). Arrested reform: the undoing of Abdullah Badawi. Kuala Lumpur