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Vladimir Gasic, Biljana Stankovic, Branka Zukic, Dragana Janic, Lidija Dokmanovic, Nada Krstovski, Jelena Lazic, Goran Milosevic, Marianna Lucafò, Gabriele Stocco, Giuliana Decorti, Sonja Pavlovic and Nikola Kotur

to have aberrant expression or deregulation in diabetes ( 12 ), cancer ( 13 , 14 , 15 ) and other diseases. It has also been reported that ncRNAs are deregulated in leukemia ( 16 , 17 , 18 ). However, further inquiry into the role of ncRNAs in pediatric ALL is required. Growth arrest-specific 5 ( GAS5 ) is a long (more than 200 base pairs) non-coding RNA (lncRNA), which promotes apoptosis and halts the cell-cycle in T lymphocytes ( 8 ). Apart from its functional role as a growth arrest factor, GAS5 also imitates the glucocorticoid response element (GRE), a

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Adela Golea, Adriana Rusu, Christiana Dumulesc and Cornelia Bala

References 1. Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-- 2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015 Jan;131(4):e29-322. DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000152 2. Muller D, Agrawal R, Arntz HR. How sudden is sudden cardiac death? Circulation. Sep;114(11):1146-50. 3. Nichol G, Thomas E, Callaway CW, Hedges J, Powell JL, Aufderheide TP, et al. Regional variation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and outcome

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Sanja Mijatović, Milica Pešić, Marija Mojić, Jasna Banković, Đorde Miljković, Paolo Fagone, Katia Mangano, Ferdinando Nicoletti, James McCubrey, Nikola Tanić and Danijela Maksimović-Ivanić

, Baccarini S, et al. HIV protease inhibitors are potent antiangiogenic molecules and promote regression of Kaposi sarcoma. Nat Med 2002; 3: 225-32. 5. Chow WA, Guo S, Valdes-Albini F. Nelfinavir induces liposarcoma apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by up-regulating sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. Anticancer Drug 2006; 17: 891-903. 6. Pajonk F, Himmelsbach J, Riess K, Sommer A, McBride WH. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protease inhibitor saquinavir inhibits proteasome function and causes apoptosis and radiosensitization

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Jerzy Kawiak


The life span of adult cells is restricted, becoming senescent and eventually undergoing apoptosis. Cells are replaced by new ones which originate from a population of stem cells. An example is provided by the hemopoietic system in the bone marrow. In an adult body, stem cells may be identified by markers present in both embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells. Oct3/4, CXCR4, Nanog, CD133 and CD34 are examples of such markers. The stem cells share several properties, such as they may: 1) replicate and give rise to new stem cells, 2) differentiate into heterogenous tissue and organ specific cells and, finally, 3) stem cells are self-protected against various toxic agents and radiation. In adult tissues, stem cells reside in specialized sites (niches), for example in the bone marrow, skin, digestive tract epithelium, and skeletal muscles. Stem cells residing in these stem cell niches are anchored there by chemokines and adhesion molecules. Stroma-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1), α-chemokine and stem-cell expressed receptor CXCR4 play an important role in the retention of stem cells in such niches. Several stress factors may attenuate the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis in the bone marrow, which leads to the release of stem cells from their niches into circulation. Another important stem cell niche-anchoring mechanism is the interaction of Wnt (a ligand) with Frizzled LRP (receptor). The recently accumulated evidence suggests that malignancy arises from an arrest in maturation and mutation of stem cells. Cancer stem cells are responsible for tumor growth, its relapse and metastasis. The first direct evidence for the existence of cancer stem cells came from observations of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Currently, cell populations enriched for cancer stem cells have been isolated from several tumors. The cancer stem cells represent less than 1% of tumor cells in the mouse models.

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Marina Vučeljić, Maja Šurbatović and Svetlana Vujanić

traumatic brain injury patients. Acta Neur Scand 2001; 103: 175-9. Bottiger BW, Mobes S, Glatzer R, Bauer H, Gries A, Bartsch P, et al. Astroglial protein S100 is an early and sensitive marker of hypoxic brain damage and outcome after cardiac arrest in humans. Circulation 2001; 103: 2694-8. Lynch JR, Blessing R, White WD, Grocott HP, Newman MF, Laskowitz DT. Novel diagnostic test for acute stroke. Stroke 2004; 35: 57-63. Jauch EC, Lindsell C, Broderick J, Fagan SC, Tilley BC, Levine SR

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Anna Tzontcheva

. Somatostatin receptors. Digestion 2000; 62 (Suppl 1): 27-32. Hofland LJ, Lamberts SW. Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human tumors. Ann Oncol 2001; 12 (Suppl 2): S31-S36. Sharma K, Patel YC, Srikant CB. C-terminal region of human somatostatin receptor 5 is required for induction of Rb and G1 cell cycle arrest. Mol Endocrinol 1999; 13: 82-90. De Herder WW, Lamberts SW. Somatostatin and somatostatin analogues: diagnostic and therapeutic uses. Curr Opin Oncol 2002; 14: 53

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Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Artur Bryja, Michal Jeseta, Maurycy Jankowski, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Andrzej Nowicki, Klaus P. Brüssow, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel and Bartosz Kempisty

production by granulosa cells. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1997;41(4):805-14; DOI:10.1095/biolreprod62.4.879. 26. Wang HW, Fang JS, Kuang X, Miao LY, Wang C, Xia GL, King ML, Zhang J. Activity of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase is required for maintaining meiotic arrest in Xenopus laevis. Biol Reprod. 2012;87(3):74;DOI:10.1095/biolreprod.112.100511.

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Wiesława Kranc, Maciej Brązert, Katarzyna Ożegowska, Joanna Budna-Tukan, Piotr Celichowski, Maurycy Jankowski, Artur Bryja, Mariusz J. Nawrocki, Małgorzata Popis, Michal Jeseta, Leszek Pawelczyk, Mariusz Skowroński, Paweł Antosik, Dorota Bukowska, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel and Bartosz Kempisty

, Leybaert L. Neurological manifestations of oculodentodigital dysplasia: a Cx43 channelopathy of the central nervous system? Front Pharmacol. 2013;4:120; DOI:10.3389/fphar.2013.00120. 21. Richard S, Baltz JM. Prophase I Arrest of Mouse Oocytes Mediated by Natriuretic Peptide Precursor C Requires GJA1 (connexin-43) and GJA4 (connexin-37) Gap Junctions in the Antral Follicle and Cumulus-Oocyte Complex1. Biol Reprod. 2014;90(6):137; DOI:10.1095/biolreprod.114.118505. 22. Li SH, Lin MH, Hwu YM, Lu CH, Yeh LY, Chen YJ, et al. Correlation of cumulus gene expression

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Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Sandra Knap, Maurycy Jankowski, Magdalena Magas, Mariusz J. Nawrocki, Piotr Ramlau, Andrzej Nowicki, Magdalena Rojewska, Błażej Chermuła, Michal Jeseta, Paweł Antosik, Dorota Bukowska, Małgorzata Bruska, Maciej Zabel, Michał Nowicki and Bartosz Kempisty

, Wang C, Xia GL, King ML, Zhang J. Activiy of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase is required for maintaining meiotic arrest in Xenopus laevis. Biol Reprod. 2012;87(3):74; DOI:10.1095/biolreprod.112.100511. 24. Sanchez F, Romero S, Smitz J. Oocyte and cumulus cell transcripts from cultured mouse follicles are induced to deviate from normal in vivo conditions by combinations of insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin. Biol Reprod. 2011;85(3):565-74, DOI:10.1095/biolreprod.111.091744. 25

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İbrahim Halil Demirsoy, Duygu Yolal Ertural, Şenay Balci, Ümit Çınkır, Kerem Sezer, Lülüfer Tamer and Nurcan Aras

induces mTOR inhibition and cell cycle arrest through REDD1. Cancer Res 2011; 71: 4366–72. 13. Rozengurt E et al. Crosstalk between insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors and G protein-coupled receptor signaling systems: a novel target for the antidiabetic drug metformin in pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2010; 16: 2505–11. 14. Guay C et al. Circulating microRNAs as novel bio markers for diabetes mellitus. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2013; 9(9): 513–21. 15. Pollak MN. Investigating metformin for cancer prevention and treatment: the end of the