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Krzysztof Falkowski

energy giants amid the rising oil prices on world markets. At that time, thanks to the incoming foreign investments, investment outlays tripled in just 6 years (1998–2004), which made it possible to kick-start the process of revamping the Russian oil industry. According to Miller, symptomatic for this modernization, and the de facto subjugation of the “resistant” oligarchs associated with the oil industry to the Kremlin, was the case of M. Khodorkovsky (then co-owner of Yukos), who, after being accused of using the so-called aggressive tax optimization, was arrested