2016; 15(3):392-399. 24. Łopusiewicz Ł. Isolation, characterisation and biological activity of melanin from Exidia nigri-cans. WSN 2018; 91:111-129. 25. Łopusiewicz Ł. Scleroderma citrinum melanin: isolation, purification, spectroscopic studies with characterization of antioxidant, antibacterial and light barrier properties. WSN 2018; 94:114-129. 26. Solano F. Melanins: skin pigments and much more – types, structural models, biological functions, and formation routes. New J Sci 2014. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/498276 27. Zhang M, Xiao G
Paweł Kwiatkowski, Stefania Giedrys-Kalemba, Małgorzata Mizielińska and Artur Bartkowiak
essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Res Pharm Sci, 2011; 6:13-21. 7. Thippeswamy NB, Naidu KA, Achur RN. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phenolic extract from Carum carvi L. J Pharm Res 2013; 7:352-7. 8. Rahimi R, Ardekani MRS. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy. Chin J Integr Med, 2013; 19:73-9. 9. Bachir RG, Benali M. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus against Escherichia
Ewa Majewska, Mariola Kozłowska, Dorota Kowalska and Eliza Gruczyńska
, Ochocka JR. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of juniper berry oil and its selected compounds. Phytotheraphy Res 2003; 17:227-231. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1110 30. Pepeljnjak S, Kosalec I, Kalodera Z, Blazević Z. Antimicrobial activity of juniper berry essential oil (Juniperus communis L. Cupressaceae). Acta Pharm 2005; 55:417-422. 31. Haziri A, Faiuku F, Mehmeti A, Govori S, Abazi S, Daci M et al. Antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Juniperus communis L. growing wild in east park of Kosovo. Am J Pharma
Said Oulkheir, Hadia Boumariem, Hanane Dand, Mohamed Aghrouch, Khadija Ounine, Allal Douira and Smail Chadli
study on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bloodstream infections: extended perspectives beyond resistance. Am J Infect Control 2010; 8:(10) 839-845. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2010.04.212 4. David MZ, Daum RS. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology and clinical consequences of an emerging epidemic. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010; 23(3):616-687. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00081-09 5. Dorman HJ.D, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J
Joanna Szydełko, Magdalena Szydełko and Anna Boguszewska-Czubara
. Satyanarayana MN. Capsaicin and gastric ulcers. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006; 46(4):275-328. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1040-830491379236 48. Cichewicz RH, Thorpe PA. The antimicrobial properties of chile peppers (Capsicum species) and their uses in Mayan medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 1996; 52(2):61-70. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(96)01384-0 49. Santos MM, Vieira-da-Motta O, Vieira IJ, Braz-Filho R, Goncalves PS, Maria EJ et al. Antibacterial activity of Capsicum annuum extract and synthetic capsaicinoid derivatives against
Mohaddese Mahboubi, Rezvan Heidarytabar and Elaheh Mahdizadeh
. 10. Fallah F, Taherpour A, Borhan RS, Hashemi A, Habibi M, Sajadi Nia R. Evaluation of Zataria multiflora Boiss and Carum copticum antibacterial activity on IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamaseproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2013; 26:193-198. 11. Gavanji S, Mohammadi E, Larki B, Bakhtari A. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of some herbal essential oils in comparison with common antibiotics in bioassay condition. Integ Med Res 2014; 3:142-52. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2014.07.001 12. Mahboubi M
Tomasz M. Karpiński and Artur Adamczak
(38/1):129-135. 12. Sobolewska A, Sztanke M, Pasternak K. Składniki borowiny i jej właściwości lecznicze. Balneol Pol 2007; 2:93-98. 13. Asakawa Y. Biologically active substances from bryophytes. In: Chopra RN, Bhatla SC, eds. Bryophyte development - physiology and biochemistry. Boston, CRC Press, 1990:259-287. 14. Nikolajeva V, Liepina L, Petrina Z, Krumina G, Grube M, Muiznieks I. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some bryophytes. Adv Microbiol 2012; 2:345-353. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aim.2012.23042 15. Ertürk Ö
Ines Ouerghemmi, Mouna Ben Farhat, Hela Harbeoui, Majdi Hammami, Ghaith Hamdaoui, Brahim Marzouk and Moufida Saidane Tounsi
Introduction: Solanum sodomaeum L. has been observed to have several medicinal properties, in particular, in the treatment of several types of human skin cancer.
Objective: The influence of the maturation stage of S. sodomaeum fruits on the total lipid contents, fatty acid profiles, essential oil yields and compositions, as well as the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils, was investigated.
Methods: The fatty acid and essential oil constituents were identified using gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The antioxidant properties of essential oil and vegetal oil were assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and reducing power assays. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was tested using the disc diffusion assay for resistance in human pathogenic bacteria.
Results: Mature fruits showed higher total lipid content (17%) and were characterised by polyunsaturated fatty acids (53.87%), represented mainly by linoleic acid (53.11%). Similar yields of essential oils were detected for immature (0.43%) and mature (0.45%) fruits. Tetrahydronaphthalene (41.79%) was detected as the major essential oil component at the immature stage versus dihydrocoumarin pentane (18.27%), hexadecanoic acid (17.43%) and 2-undecanone (13.20%) in mature fruits. The DPPH test showed that essential oils had better antioxidant properties; however, the vegetal oils showed better performance in the reducing power assay. Moreover, the essential oil of S. sodomaeum mature fruits was active against bacterial strains.
Conclusions: S. sodomaeum fruits could be a valuable source of natural antioxidants and antibacterial agents.
Joanna Smolibowska, Marcin Szymański and Arkadiusz Szymański
of gastric cancer intervention. Carbohyd Polym 2011; 85:369-375. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.02.035 5. Kim SH, Jakhar R, Kang S.C. Apoptotic properties of polysaccharide isolated from fruiting bodies of medicinal mushroom Fomes fomentarius in human lung carcinoma cell line. Saudi J Biol Sci 2015; 22(4):484-90. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.11.022 6. Grienke U, Zöll M, Peintner U, Rollinger JM. European medicinal polypores – A modern view on traditional uses. J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 154:564-583. doi: http
Teimur Najibzadeh and Mohammad Hossein Yadegary
, Khan ZU. Semi-nested PCR for diagnosis of candidemia: comparison with culture, antigen detection, and biochemical methods for species identification. J Clin Microbiol 2002; 40(7):2483-2489. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.40.7.2483-2489.2002 12. Ghasemi Dehkordi N. Iranian Herbal Pharmacopoeia (IHP). Min Health Pub 2002; 2:749-753. 13. Abdollahi M, Salehnia A, Mortazavi SH, Ebrahimi M, Shafiee A, Fouladian F, et al. Antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, reproduction stimulatory properties and safety of essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica