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Swastika Ganguly, Vatsal Vithlani, Anup Kesharwani, Ritu Kuhu, Lakshmanan Baskar, Papiya Mitramazumder, Ashok Sharon and Abhimanyu Dev

. Yogeeswari, Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors with broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic properties, Bioorg. Med. Chem.   12 (2004) 5865-5873; DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2004.08.028. J. J. Ren, C. Nicolas, L. E. Bird, T. Fujiwara, H. Sugimoto and D. Stuart, Binding of the second generation non-nucleoside inhibitor S-1153 to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase involves extensive main chain hydrogen bonding, J. Biol. Chem.   275 (2000) 14316-14320; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.275.19. 14316

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Maria-Viorica Ciocilteu, Andreea Gabriela Mocanu, Adriana Mocanu, Catalin Ducu, Oana Elena Nicolaescu, Valentin Costel Manda, Adina Turcu-Stiolica, Claudiu Nicolicescu, Razvan Melinte, Maria Balasoiu, Octavian Croitoru and Johny Neamtu

, Coord. Chem. Rev. 33 (1980) 227–250; 24. J. Barbosa, R. Berge´s, I. Toro and V. Sanz-Nebot, Protonation equilibria of quinolone antibacterials in acetonitrile-water mobile phases used in LC, Talanta 44 (1997) 1271–1283; 25. S. G. Kumar, R. Govindana and E. K. Girija, In situ synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies of ciprofloxacin loaded hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for the treatment of osteomyelitis, J. Mater. Chem. B 2 (2014) 5052–5060; http

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Farhan Ahmad, Mohd Alam, Zeenat Khan, Roop Khar and Mushir Ali

Development and in vitro evaluation of an acid buffering bioadhesive vaginal gel for mixed vaginal infections

An acid buffering bioadhesive vaginal (ABBV) gel was developed for the treatment of mixed vaginal infections. Different bioadhesive polymers were evaluated on the basis of their bioadhesive strength, stability and drug release properties. Bioadhesion and release studies showed that guar gum, xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcelullose K4M formed a good combination of bioadhesive polymers to develop the ABBV gel. Monosodium citrate was used as an acid buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4). The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. The ex vivo retention study showed that the bioadhesive polymers hold the gel for 12-13 hours inside the vaginal tube. Results of the in vitro antimicrobial study indicated that the ABBV gel had better antimicrobial action than the commercial intravaginal drug delivery systems and retention was prolonged in an ex vivo retention experiment.

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Beata Szulc-Musioł, Barbara Dolińska, Justyna Kołodziejska and Florian Ryszka

References 1. A. D. A. H. Kumarasiri, H. I. C. De Silva and G. H. C. M. Hettiarachchi, Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and physicochemical properties of formulated polyherbal ointments, IJAPBC 6 (2017) 87-95. 2. A. Kobylińska and K. M. Janas, Health-promoting effect of quercetin in human diet, Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw. 69 (2015) 51-62. 3. K. Sak, Site-specific anticancer effects of dietary flavonoid quercetin, Nutr. Cancer. 66 (2014) 177- 193; 4

Open access

Milena Takač

References P. C. Appelbaum and P. A. Hunter, The fluoroquinolone antibacterials: past, present and future perspectives, Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents   16 (2000) 5-15; DOI: 10.1016/S0924-8579(00)00192-8. D. C. Hooper, Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents (Eds. D. C. Hooper and E. Rubinstein), AMS Press, Washington 2003, pp. 3-40. S. Emami, A. Shafiee and A. Foroumadi, Structural features of new quinolones and relationship to antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Mini

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Mohamed Reda Aouad, Mouslim Messali, Nadjet Rezki, Adeeb Al-Sheikh Ali and Alain Lesimple

, Synthesis of some triazolylthioacetamidobenzofuran derivatives, Farmaco 57 (2002) 573-578; DOI: 10.1016/S0014-827X(02)01250-8. 11. M. Chen, X.-F. Wang, S.-S. Wang, Y.-X. Feng, F. Chen and C.-L. Yang, Synthesis, characterization and fungicidal activities of novel fluorinated 3,5-disubstituted-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amines, J. Fluorine Chem. 135 (2012) 324 323-329; DOI: 10.1016/j.jfluchem.2011.12.015. 12. A. Foroumadi, S. Emami, A. Hassanzadeh, M. Rajaee, K. Sokhanvar, M. H. Moshafiand A. Shafiee, Synthesis and antibacterial activity of N- (5

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Ivan Kos, Tin Weitner, Sandra Flinčec Grgac and Jasna Jablan

-05-577635. 7. E. S. Lee, M. M. Heller, F. Kamangar, K. Park, W. Liao and J. Koo, Hydroxyurea for the treatment of psoriasis including in HIV-infected individuals: A Review, Psoriasis Forum 17 (2011) 180-187. 8. I. Butula, V. Vela and B. Ivezić (Zorc), Reaktionen mit 1-Benzotriazol carbonsaurechlorid. IV. Synthese von substituierten Harnstoffen, Semicarbaziden und Carbaziden, Croat. Chem. Acta 51 (1978) 339-346. 9. A. R. Katritzky, X. Lan, J. Z. Yang and O. V. Denisko, Properties and synthetic utility of N-substituted benzotriazoles, Chem. Rev

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Evren Algin Yapar, Özge Ýnal and M. Sedef Erdal

-Canbay, Tocopherol, carotene, phenolic contents and antibacterial properties of rose essential oil, hydrosol and absolute, Curr. Microbiol. 59 (2009) 554-558; DOI: 10.1007/s00284-009-9475-y. 10. A. Wei and T. Shibamoto, Antioxidant activities of essential oil mixtures toward skin lipid squalene oxidized by UV irradiation, Cutan. Ocul. Toxicol. 26 (2007) 227-233; DOI: 10.1080/15569520 701224501. 11. T. Hongratanaworakit, Relaxing effect of rose oil on humans, Nat. Prod. Commun. 4 (2009) 291-296. 12. A. R. Silva, C. Seidl, A. S

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Gabriele Balciunaite, Jovita Juodsnukyte, Arunas Savickas, Ona Ragazinskiene, Luka Siatkute, Gitana Zvirblyte, Edita Mistiniene and Nijole Savickiene

References 1. D. C. Hell, J. Barnes, L. Anderson, S. Gibbons and J. D. Phillipson, Echinacea species (Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 57 (2005) 929-954; DOI: 10.1211/0022357056127. 2. Q. Zheng, D. Qiu, X. Liu, L. Zhang, S. Cai and X. Zhang, Antiproliferative effect of Dendrobium catenatum Lindley polypeptides against human liver, gastric and breast cancer cell lines, Food

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R. Mikláš, N. Miklášová, M. Bukovský and F. Devínsky

Artemisia annua L. from Bosnia. Ind Crop Prod. 2012;37(1):479-485. [5] Cojocaru OA, Shamshina JL, Gurau G et al. Ionic liquid forms of the herbicide dicamba with increased efficacy and reduced volatility. Green Chem. 2013;15:2110-2120. [6] Coleman D, Špulák M, Garcia MT, Gathergood N. Antimicrobial toxicity studies of ionic liquids leading to a ‘hit’ MRSA selective antibacterial imidazolium salt. Green Chem. 2012;14:1350-1356. [7] Colomer A, Pinazo A, García MT et al. pH-sensitive surfactants from lysine: Assessment of their cytotoxicity and environmental behavior