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predictability and stability (Tyldum 2015). The argument can be turned on its head: some employers may hire immigrants because of their marginalised position in receiving communities, which makes them willingto take jobs that the majority population would not consider. Since they are far back in the hiring queue, they need to be willingto accept lower pay and worse conditions in order to find any work at all, and are not in a position to demand stable employment or more predictable working conditions. We will refer to these theories, which explain the development of dual
many people want to come to London that what you offer, your spare room, becomes a really valuable thing’. The United Kingdom can rely on the ‘pull’ of London to supply migrants willingto engage in low-paid jobs, such as childcare. The social and cultural attractiveness of London can be just as important to migrants as economic opportunities (cf. Conradson and Latham, 2007 : 240; King et al ., 2014 ).
Without effective guidance or regulation from government, the pay and conditions of au pairs are responsive to market forces. An oversupply of au pairs means that
. Although temporary agency workers are paid lesser than permanent employees, the actual wage cost is not necessarily lower once the agencies have charged their ‘markup’ fee. However, reduced liability for holiday pay, parental cover, and sick pay entitlements can still lead to considerable savings for the client firms. Furthermore, using temporary agency workers can reduce the costs involved in recruitment and administration of employees. By outsourcing these functions, firms can concentrate on their core activities. A fourth reason why firms use temporary agency workers
Boundary Work and Belonging in Au Pairs’ Narratives
and receiving societies, and their previous and current lived experience. Current and former au pairs observe and experience various aspects of social distance and inequalities. Under such conditions, they may find themselves excluded but willingto overcome social distance and get closer to attractive hosting others. As Skeggs argued ( 2004 : 177), the ability to propertise (other’s) culture in the making of self becomes central to how class is made in the contemporary world. This economic and cultural class-making is also gendered.
Public arrangements and
Experiences of African immigrant parents within Norwegian welfare society
Berit Overå Johannesen and Lily Appoh
individuals signal their ability and willingnessto respect such social codes. If immigrants fail to acknowledge taken for granted norms and values they may be placed low in value-mastering hierarchies.
Vike, Lidén & Lien (2001:23) discuss the dynamics of individuality and citizens’ self-government relative to institutions of power such as the national state. In the Norwegian case, it is characteristic that citizens deeply trust the government to fend for their interests. The fact that the concept of ‘folket’ (the people) has been closely entangled with the nation
Arnfinn H Midtbøen, Nina Gren, MA Kaisa Nissi, Aleksandra Jolkina and Saara Koikkalainen
from across the globe by an interdisciplinary group of authors, including anthropologists, sociologists, human geographers and researchers focusing on border, development and migration research.
The book is also an attempt to close a gap in migration theorising: the analytical and methodological ‘mobility bias’ ( Schewel 2015 ; Koikkalainen and Kyle 2015 ), where researchers are content with studying those who migrate while paying little attention to those who choose to stay. Several of the edited volume’s articles tackle this dichotomy. The article by Lothar
‘many immigrants’. When asked to be more explicit about the people they referred to as ‘immigrants’, the response in all of the groups was that ‘immigrants’ are people who ‘do not look like ethnic Norwegians’ (some considered immigrants to be ‘people who don’t have a white skin color’, or ‘dark people’), it was also mentioned that ‘immigrants’ were people who ‘behave differently’ than ‘Norwegians’.
Some participants described the presence of ‘immigrants’ in the city in positive terms, mentioning access to cheaper and more exotic food and the willingness of
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