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Peter Kivisto

the expansion of citizen rights. He ignores citizenship as membership, as belonging to a polity, taking it as a given in what he understood to be a fairly homogeneous and fixed understanding of national identity (this just before the Windrush arrived in Tilbury Docks, a development that as the current scandal in the UK attests, has had an enduring impact on citizenship as a boundary-drawing device). Likewise, he pays scant attention to the duties and responsibilities of citizenship, presuming that in contemporary liberal democracies, the reality is that citizens are

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Zahid Shahab Ahmed

escalated sectarian violence in the country. In 1980, Islamabad was the site of the first-ever demonstration by Shias against the implementation of the Zakat and Ushr Ordinance (Islamic taxes) by the then President General Zia-ul-Haq ( Warde 2010 , 116). Shias demanded exemption from paying Zakat Zakat is an Islamic practice of alms giving, which is among the five pillars of Islam. to the state and the government had to agree ( Iqbal 2014 ). According to Ali (2000 , 33), the successful protests in Islamabad became a factor in deteriorating Shia–Sunni relations in