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Ekkehardt Ernst, Rossana Merola and Daniel Samaan

, however, would require perfect prediction of a consumer’s willingness to pay, something that runs counter to the underlying principle of AI systems as stochastic prediction machines. With this form of price discrimination, producers offer (groups of) consumers the same type of product or service at different prices, based on the relative willingness of consumers to pay for these products. A typical example consists of internationally traded goods, such as pharmaceuticals, that are priced differently depending on a country’s consumer characteristics, which may depend on

Open access

Kathryn Anne Edwards and Jeffrey B. Wenger

implicitly, that the providers of assistance are not made worse off by helping their family members, if for no other reason than they willingly elect to do so. Past research explores the motivations for family assistance, especially between parents and children. Parents are either altruistically motivated or they are motivated by exchange and give to a child in the current period in order to receive from the child in the future. In the former, a child’s consumption enters the parents utility function, and the latter, a parent’s future consumption and thereby utility is

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Anja Rossen, Christina Boll and André Wolf

overeducation. Table A3 in Appendix presents the marginal effects of the remaining explanatory variables at cross-country level. Results for these impact factors at country level are available upon request. First, we notice the highly positive association of the inverse mills ratio, implying that a higher employment propensity is related to a higher overeducation risk at the European level. Individuals with are under high financial pressure might be more willing to accept jobs with suboptimal skill matches. This is also confirmed by the country results. The mills ratio