AHMED H.M., EBERHARDT E., DUNBAR W.S., Interaction between block caving and rock slope deformation kinematics as a function of cave position and orientation of discontinuities, Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining and The Aus. IMM, 2014.
 BAI M., KENDORSKI F., VAN ROOSENDAAL D., Chinese and North American high-extraction underground coal mining strata behavior and water protection experience and guidelines, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining, Morgantown 1995
Kheira Boutouba, Ismail Benessalah, Ahmed Arab and Ahmed Djafar Henni
weak mechanical characteristics, must be reinforced to ensure the stability of buildings and civil engineering infrastructures. The method of including a hydraulic binder to improve the mechanical characteristics of soils is to homogeneously mix the cement in the soil with certain water content and play the role of reinforcement locally.
Several researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of adding cement to the mechanical behavior of soils (such as Coop et al, 1993 ; Consoli et al., 1998 ; Schnaid et al., 2001 ; Asghari et al., 2003 ; Haeri et al., 2006
Iman Faridmehr, Mohammad Reza YazdaniPour, Mohammad Javadi Jokar and Togay Ozbakkaloglu
central axis below the core of the dam. 21 In the middle parts of the dam, where the body height and hydrostatic load of the water are higher, the wall extends into one of the relatively thick non-impermeable layers of lichens below the dam and connects to lichen layers with higher levels with lower penetration depth. Expansion, thickness and physical properties of the rock masses that form the Karkheh Reservoir Dam site have a wide range of variations. The wall must be able to withstand the deformations and changes imposed by applied forces like settlement of the dam
N is equivalent to shear modulus μ , and A are is equivalent to Lame coefficient λ ; R is the modulus of volume elasticity of the liquid; Q is a coupling coefficient stemming from the mutual interaction between the solid phase and the liquid phase, σ ij is a tensor of stress in the skeleton, related to the total RVE surface, defined as a fuzzy stress tensor, σ is the stress in the liquid, related to (similarly as the stress in the skeleton) the total surface area of the RVE cross section, also defined as fuzzy stress, ε ij is a skeleton deformation
surface forces. The physical interaction between atoms or gas molecules and the atoms of carbon surface is associated with the existence of attractive van der Waals’ forces and repulsive forces that arise when the gas atoms approach the atoms of the solid so much that their electron shells begin to penetrate each other (short-range forces).
The gas molecule at a certain volume has three degrees of freedom in the translational movement (neglecting oscillatory and rotational movements). After this molecule is adsorbed by a solid, the number of these degrees of freedom
50 mm in diameters, and some blocks greater than 500 mm in diameter. Finally, there is a gneissic basement that goes from 80 m in depth at Vaise station to less than 20 m at Gorge de Loup ( Figure 2 ). The silts, which are most often located at the upper part of the tunnel section, have natural water contents near the liquid limit and a low consistency index, which makes them very sensitive to disturbance.
Lyon metro network.
2.2 Monitoring section
In order to build a database to qualify numerical
Raid Ramzi Al-Omari, Madhat Shakir Al-Soud and Osamah Ibrahim Al-Zuhairi
). The water table level was assumed to be at the ground surface and the hydrostatic pore pressure was kept constant during the tunnel boring advancement.
Underground location of tunnel relative to a single and group of piles.
Piles cap dimension and Locations of piles in groups.
2.2 Material Parameters and Constitutive Models
An elasto-plastic analysis was adopted to simulate tunnel construction. Pile–soil interaction was included using the embedded pile feature ( Brinkgreve et al., 2013 ). The embedded pile is a pile
L. Chandra, J. Chandrasekaran, K. Perumal, B. Babu and V. Jayaramakrishnan
. The absorption observed at 1500 cm −1 is due to COO − stretching vibration. The C–H rocking vibration is observed at 1375 cm −1 . The C–N stretching vibration is attributed to the peak at 1290 cm −1 . The absorption observed at 1158 cm −1 is due to C–O stretching vibration. The OH bending vibration is observed at 932 cm −1 . The absorption observed at 769 cm −1 is due to COO − scissoring vibration. The sharp absorption band at 641 cm −1 is attributed to aromatic O–H out-of-plane bending vibration.
UV-Vis absorption spectrum
The UV-Vis absorption