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RA is defined as established RA with resistance to conventional DMARDs and at least one antitumour necrosis factor a (anti-TNFa). MSCT could only result in a partial and transient clinical improvement. In Wang et al . ( 21 ), a larger sample size was obtained, with 136 patients in treatment of intravenous injection of MSC with DMARDs and 36 patients in treatment of DMARDs without MSCs. It showed significant improvement in MSCs group in terms of clinical response and increase in the percentage of regulatory T cells in peripheral blood. Further studies will be

1 Introduction The immune checkpoints, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed cell death protein and programmed cell death protein ligand 1, were the normal self-regulatory pathways to control T-cell activities in human body. In tumor microenvironment, these molecules were overexpressed to inhibit the normal T-cell function and survival, leading to an escape from the destruction from immune system. The immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPis) block this mechanism and restore the T-cell immunity to achieve tumor destructions. However, the loss

. The tender joint count significantly reduced for the EA and TCA groups. The physician’s global score was significantly reduced for the EA group, and the patient’s global score was significantly reduced for the TCA group. [ 4 ] Systemic lupus erythematosus In Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), several diet supplements were investigated for their efficacy, as shown in table 1 . Table 1 Proposed mechanism Results Vitamin D supplement Increase regulatory T cells and decrease Th17, Th1 and memory B cells. Lower levels associated with more active disease Omega3 Fish Oil