The immune checkpoints, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed cell death protein and programmed cell death protein ligand 1, were the normal self-regulatory pathways to control T-cell activities in human body. In tumor microenvironment, these molecules were overexpressed to inhibit the normal T-cell function and survival, leading to an escape from the destruction from immune system. The immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPis) block this mechanism and restore the T-cell immunity to achieve tumor destructions. However, the
regulatoryTcells in peripheral blood. Further studies will be needed for any conclusive evidence for the application of MSCT in patients with RA.
Another potential reason for conflicting results in MSCT studies in RA is that the effective mode of administration of MSCs is still unknown. A comparative study of MSCs showed that intra-articular MSCs were superior in cartilage formation compared with other modes of administration ( 22 ). In previous studies, intraarticular administration of MSCs had a low efficacy in patients with RA ( 23 ). A new delivery method of MSCs
groups. The tender joint count significantly reduced for the EA and TCA groups. The physician’s global score was significantly reduced for the EA group, and the patient’s global score was significantly reduced for the TCA group. [ 4 ]
Systemic lupus erythematosus
In Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), several diet supplements were investigated for their efficacy, as shown in table 1 .
Vitamin D supplement
Increase regulatoryTcells and decrease Th17, Th1 and memory B cells.