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Advances in the Study on the Relationship between Regulatory T cells and Human Papilloma Viral Infection

cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains(CD25). Breakdown of a single mechanism of self-tolerance causes various autoimmune diseases. J Immunol, 1995, 155(3): 1151-1164. 8 Li F, Li Y, Wu S, et al . Distribution of Human Papilloma Virus High Risk Subtypes in Patients with Condyloma Acuminatum. Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology , 2012, 22 (1): 210-212. 9 Sun G. Relationship between Human Papillomavirus Infection and Regulatory T Lymphocyte and Helper T Cell 17 in Patients with Condyloma Acuminatum. Chinese Journal of Clinicians (Electronic Edition

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Progress of research on the immune tolerance of chronic HBV infection

cell population. This phenomenon causes an imbalance of Th1/Th2, reduction of antiviral substance secreted by Th1, and attenuation of anti-HBV-specific T lymphocyte immune response, which cause chronic HBV infection. IL-35 is an immunosuppressive cytokine secreted by regulatory T lymphocytes. In vitro experiments have shown that IL-35 can also inhibit the proliferation of HBV-specific CTLs, weaken the immune responses of anti-HBV cells, and play an important role in the formation of immune tolerance in HBV infection [ 21 ]. Therefore, IL-35 is considered to be

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Research progress on the role of immune cells in Brucella infection

of extracellular and intracellular microbial infections and can defend against invasion of Brucella through cooperation with Th1 cells [ 12 ]. The antibody response to Brucella proteins, mediated by interleukin 17 (IL-17) secreted by Th17 cells, plays a key role in brucellosis vaccine [ 13 ]. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibit the immune function of effector T cells, promoting Brucella invasion [ 14 ]. Therefore, the occurrence of brucellosis may be related to the imbalance in Treg/Th17 cells. Clapp et al. [ 15 ] have observed from nasal mucosa infection that

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Influenza and sudden unexpected death: the possible role of peptide cross-reactivity

resulting data sets were explored, and influenza viruses containing titin peptide matches were manually identified and annotated. In addition, reference proteomes of influenza A virus, H3N2 subtype (tax ID: 385580), influenza B virus (tax ID: 518987), and influenza C virus (tax ID: 11553) were used to investigate peptide matching at the 5-mer level. Immunological potential of shared peptides was analyzed using the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB; www.iedb.org ) resource [ 38 ]. IEDB offers experimental data characterizing antibody and T cell epitopes studied in human

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Association of FOXP3 Gene Polymorphism with Chronic Hepatitis B in Chinese Population

References 1. Hori S, Nomura T, Sakaguchi S. Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science 2003;299:1057-1061. 2. Fontenot JD, Gavin MA, Rudensky AY. Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol 2003;4:330-336. 3. Zheng Y, Rudensky AY. Foxp3 in control of the regulatory T cell lineage. Nat Immunol 2007;8:457-462. 4. Williams LM, Rudensky AY. Maintenance of the Foxp3-dependent developmental program in mature

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Influence of Echinococcus multilocularis infection on immune response of mice and their offspring

): Demonstration of a Specific Echinococcus multilocularis Antigen in the Supernatant of in vitro Maintained Protoscolices. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol. Hyg. A, 268: 416–423 [4] Bauder, B., Auer, H., Schilcher, F., Gabler, C., Romig, T., Bilger, B., Aspock, H. (1999): Experimental investigation on the B and T cell immune response in primary pelvic echinococcosis. Parasite Immunol., 21: 409–421. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3024.1999.00241.x http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3024.1999.00241.x [5] Borecka, A., Gawor, J., Malczewska, M

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Research Progress on Effects of Regulatory B Cells in Infection Immunity

References 1 Koichi Yanaba, Jean-David Bouaziz, et al . A regulatory B cell subset with a unique CD1dhiCD5+ phenotype controls T cell-dependent inflammatory responses. Immun, 2008, 28(5):639-50. 2 Mizoguchi A, Bhan AK. A case for regulator y B cells. J Immun, 2006,176(2):705-10. 3 Yang M, Rui K, Wang SG, et al . Regulatory B cells in autoimmune diseases. Cell Mol Immun, 2013, 10(13):122-32 4 Wolf SD, Dittel BN, Hardardottir F, et al . Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction in genetically B cell-deficient mice. J Exp Med

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Original Article. Dynamic Changes of Multiple Immune Cells in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Undergoing Antiviral Treatment

, Pitzalisd C, Lord GM, Kirkham BW, et al. In vivo activated monocytes from the site of inflammation in humans specifically promote Th17 responses. Proc Nati Acad Sci USA 2009;106:6232-6237. 4 O’Quinn DB, Palmer MT, Lee YK, Weaver CT. Emergence of the Th17 pathway and its role in host defense. Adv Immunol 2008;99:115-163. 5 Nan XP, Zhang Y, Yu HT, Li Y, Sun RL, Wang JP, et al. Circulating CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells and expression of PD-1 and BTLA on CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Viral Immunol 2010

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Research progress of follicular cytotoxic T cells in HIV infection

the transcription of CXCR5 after combining with these regulatory elements [ 7 ]. E2A activates the transcription of CXCR5, whereas Blimp1 causes its inhibition. In addition to directly regulating the expression of CXCR5, transcription factors Blimp1 and E2A may also form transcription pathways with inhibitor of differentiation 2 (Id2) and Id3 profiling of B cell lymphoma-6 (Bcl6), T-cell factor 1 (TCF-1), and E2A, thereby controlling expression of CXCR5 and formation of TFCs. Expressions of inhibitory molecules such as T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain

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Advances in Studies Related to Interleukin-12 Family and Infectious Diseases

replication in monocyte-derived dendritic cells via a type I interferon-independent pathway. PLoS One, 2013, 8(3):e59194. 33 Collison LW, Workman CJ, Kuo TT, et al . The inhibitory cytokine IL-35 contributes to regulatory T-cell function. Nature, 2007, 450(7169):566-569. 34 Bardel E, Larousserie F, Charlot-Rabiega P, et al . Human CD4 +CD25+Foxp3 + regulatory T cells do not constitutively express IL-35. J Immunol, 2008,181(10):6898-6905. 35 Shen P, Roch T, Lampropoulou V, et al . IL-35-producing B cells are critical regulators of immunity during

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