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Matevz Skerget, Barbara Skopec, Darja Zontar and Peter Cernelc

marrow aplasia followed by delayed reconstitution of lymphocytes resulting in partial recovery on collection day. 11 As a consequence lower doses of lymphocytes are col lected and reinfused. There is accumulating evidence that the dose of infused lymphocytes and their recovery on day 15 and 30 after AHSCT are independent prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas and myeloma. 12 - 15 Among lymphocyte subpopulations the CD16+/56+ natural killer (NK) cells are particularly strong independent predictors of survival. 12 T regulatory

Open access

Elias A. Kotteas and Konstantinos N. Syrigos

processed. Using dendritic cells, it is possible to present antigens in a way that stimulates T regulatory cells, which would opposean antitumor response. APCs require a maturation signal in order to promote immunity. Partial maturation may be induced through toll-like receptor signaling from necrotic tumor cells. The successful use of checkpoint inhibitors led to a breakthrough in the development of cancer immunotherapy. The anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody Ipilimumab was the first checkpoint inhibitor that achieved durable objective responses in metastatic melanoma

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Nikolaos F. Pistamaltzian, Sonia A. Perez and Constantin N. Baxevanis

biology of tumour cells, making them less immunogenic, highly suppressive, with a high angiogenic output. This may seriously impact the balance between the effector and regulatory cell compartments by favouring the infiltration and accumulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) within tumours. In this way, the effector T cells that do infiltrate the tumour will be negatively controlled by these regulatory cellular subsets and inhibitory molecules. The outcome of this dysregulated balance between effector and regulatory cells is

Open access

Alexios Matikas and Sofia Aggelaki

can be traced as far back as the late 19th century, in recent years the exponential advances in the understanding of tumour–host interplay have led to important breakthroughs in the treatment of solid tumours, especially melanoma and NSCLC. The recognition by the T-cells of antigens bound to specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and presented by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs), is the decisive first step in the process of immune recognition. This recognition is regulated by several inhibitory molecules such as the cytotoxic T

Open access

George Fotopoulos, Ioannis Vathiotis, George C. Nikou and Konstantinos Syrigos

-adducin (ADD1), cyclin D1 (CCND1), and p53 have been identified as potential downstream ZNF322A targets by quantative proteomic analysis [8] . CD36 is a product of a gene located in chromosome 7. Gains and amplifications on the short arm of it have previously been detected in many malignant tumors such as sarcomas and carcinomas [ 9 , 10 ]. This product is an eminent adhesion molecule and hepatocyte growth factor, as well as a regulatory protein involved in cell growth, proliferation, motility, matrix invasion and angiogenesis. As a result, CD36 constitutes a core

Open access

Miha Skvarc, David Stubljar, Andreja Natasa Kopitar, Samo Jeverica, Bojan Tepes, Janko Kos and Alojz Ihan

: 559-70. 17. Wang X, Uto T, Sato K, Ide K, Akagi T, Okamoto M, et al. Potent activation of antigen-specific T cells by antigen-loaded nanospheres. Immunol Lett 2005; 98: 123-30. 18. Robinson K, Kenefeck R, Pidgeon EL, Shakib S, Patel S, Polson RJ, et al. Helicobacter pylori -induced peptic ulcer disease is associated with inadequate regulatory T cell responses . Gut 2008; 57: 1375-85. 19. Zhang M, Liu M, Luther J, Kao JY. Helicobacter pylori directs tolerogenic programming of dendritic cells. Gut Microbes

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Claudia Salvadori, Tanja Svara, Guido Rocchigiani, Francesca Millanta, Darja Pavlin, Maja Cemazar, Ursa Lampreht Tratar, Gregor Sersa, Natasa Tozon and Alessandro Poli

. Successful treatment of equine sarcoids with cisplatin electrochemotherapy: a retrospective study of 48 cases Equine Vet J 2012 44 214 20 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011.00425.x 22 Curiel TJ, Coukos G, Zou L, Alvarez X, Cheng P, Mottram P, et al. Specific recruitment of regulatory T cells in ovarian carcinoma fosters immune provolege and predicts reduced survival. Nat Med 2004; 10 : 942-9. 10.1038/nm1093 Curiel TJ Coukos G Zou L Alvarez X Cheng P Mottram P Specific recruitment of regulatory T cells in ovarian carcinoma fosters immune provolege and predicts

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Tanja Kosak Soklic, Matija Rijavec, Mira Silar, Ana Koren, Izidor Kern, Irena Hocevar-Boltezar and Peter Korosec

Similarly, Th17 were reported to have a potentially protective immune homeostatic role in CRSwNP and to be a part of the normal homeostatic immune response in healthy nasal mucosa by IL-17 production. 15 Regulatory T cells (Treg) control the CRS inflammation; the regulatory cells deficiency or dysfunction can lead to exaggerated inflammation; on the other hand, an elevated Treg number might be a sign of an unsuccessful inflammation control by immune system. 16 Current therapeutic approaches still fail in a portion of patients with severe persistent CRS symptoms and

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Mateja Prunk, Milica Perisic Nanut, Jerica Sabotic, Urban Svajger and Janko Kos

Introduction The ability of cancer cells to avoid immune response is one of hallmarks of cancer 1 and thus, several therapeutic approaches are aimed to enhance anticancer immunity. In cancer immunotherapy the activation and maintaining of T cells directed towards tumour antigens provided promising results. 2 In this case the main players are CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), major cell effectors of adaptive immunity, since they possess the ability to kill target cells directly. 3 The key pathway employed by CTLs in target cell killing involves release

Open access

Sebastian Adeberg, Denise Bernhardt, Semi B. Harrabi, Nils H. Nicolay, Juliane Hörner-Rieber, Laila König, Michael Repka, Angela Mohr, Amir Abdollahi, Klaus-Josef Weber, Juergen Debus and Stefan Rieken

ATP production, induction of cell cycle arrest, autophagy, and apoptotic processes through activation of adenosine-5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) 5 and inhibition of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway in glioblastoma cells. 6 , 7 AMPK is a serine/threonine kinase that functions as a cellular energy sensor. AMPK is an obligate heterotrimer, consisting of one catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ). 8 Under cellular stress conditions, AMPK is activated by increased AMP-to-ATP ratios to promote catabolism and