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Hakki Yilmaz, M. Cakmak, B. Ceydilek, C. Demir and A. Aktas

References Ait-Oufella H, Salomon BL, Potteaux S, Robertson AK, Gourdy P, Zoll J, Merval R, Esposito B, Cohen JL, Fisson S, Flavell RA, Hansson GK, Klatzmann D, Tedgui A, Mallat Z. Natural regulatory T cells control the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Nat Med 12, 178-180, 2006. Akinci B, Comlekci A, Yener S, Bayraktar F, Demir T, Ozcan MA, Yuksel F, Yesil S. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, but not treatment of hypothyroidism, is associated with altered TGFbeta1 levels. Arch Med Res 39, 397-401, 2008. Bettini M

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Adrian Vlad and Romulus Timar

. Reijonen H, Daniels TL, Lernmark A, Nepom GT. GAD65-specific autoantibodies enhance the presentation of an immunodominant T-cell epitope from GAD65. Diabetes 49: 1621-1626, 2000. Ludewig B, Odermatt B, Landmann S, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel RM. Dendritic cells induce autoimmune diabetes and maintain disease via de novo formation of local lymphoid tissue. J Exp Med 188: 1493-1501, 1998. Kukreja A, Cost G, Marker J, Zhang C, Sun Z, Lin-Su K, Ten S, Sanz M, Exley M, Wilson B, Porcelli S, Maclaren N. Multiple immuno-regulatory

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Chunyan Liu and Zonghong Shao

(CSA)], the cytotoxicity of CD 8 + HLA-DR + T cells was reduced and then reached the normal state. Moreover, the expression of perforin, [ 4 ] granular enzyme, TNF-β, and FasL, as well as many other hematopoietic negative regulatory factors, were elevated obviously in these effector T cells in patients with AA, [ 5 ] suggesting that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells might be destroyed through lymphokine-induced apoptosis. [ 6 ] Particularly worth mentioning is the expression of linker for activation of T cells (LAT) in CD3 + T cells was positively

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Liang Bai and John Y-J. Shyy

-like factor 4 protects against atherothrombosis in mice J Clin Invest 2012 122 4727 31 12 Yoshida T, Yamashita M, Horimai C, Hayashi M. Deletion of Kruppel-Like Factor 4 in Endothelial and Hematopoietic Cells Enhances Neointimal Formation Following Vascular Injury. J Am Heart Assoc 2014; 3:e000622. Yoshida T Yamashita M Horimai C Hayashi M. Deletion of Kruppel-Like Factor 4 in Endothelial and Hematopoietic Cells Enhances Neointimal Formation Following Vascular Injury J Am Heart Assoc 2014 3 e000622 13 Shen B, Smith RS, Hsu YT, Chao L, Chao J. Kruppel-like Factor 4 Is a

Open access

Alexander N. Osipenko

. Rep. 5: 18366, 2015. 24. Chakravarty B, Gu Z, Chirala SS, Wakil SJ, Quiocho FA. Human fatty acid synthase: Structure and substrate selectivity of the thioesterase domain. J PNAS 101(44): 15567-15572, 2004. 25. Wakil SJ, Abu-Elheiga LA. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome. J Lipid Res 50: 138-143, 2009. 26. Browne CD, Hindmarsh EJ, Smith JW. Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis by orlistat, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor. J FASEB 20(12): 2027-2035, 2006. 27. Kusakabe T, Maeda M, Hoshi N, et

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Shi-lin Qiu and Xiao-ning Zhong

-72. 4. Bai J, Qiu SL, Zhong XN, Huang QP, He ZY, Zhang JQ, et al. Erythromycin enhances CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cell responses in a rat model of smoke-induced lung inflammation. Mediators Inflamm 2012; 2012: 410232. 5. He Z, Li B, Yu L, Liu Q, Zhong N, Ran P. Suppression of oxidantinduced glutathione synthesis by erythromycin in human bronchial epithelial cells. Respiration 2008; 75: 202-9. 6. Zhong XN, Guo SM. An experimental study on pulmonary vascular inflammation in a rat model of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chin J Tuberc

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Ming Hong and Guangsheng He

right stage of differentiation for subsequent malignant transformation. Notably, GATA2 expression levels in primary inv(3)/t(3;3) AML cases and cell lines ( n =78) were found to be significantly reduced as compared to controls (213 AML patients). In addition, monoallelic GATA2 expression was found as a consequence of GATA2 inactivation on the rearranged allele in cases with inv(3) or t(3;3). Thus, the inversion/translocation event in inv(3)/t(3;3) malignancies reorganizes an originally upstream regulatory element of the GATA2 domain, causing reduced and functional

Open access

Shobhana Nayak Rao

and worse survival following renal IRI. The protective effect from renal IRI provided by the HSP 70 inducing agent geranylgeranylacetone is also abrogated in HSP 70 knockout mice. The main barrier to the translation of these treatments to clinical use is the lack of complete understanding how HSP 70 induction results in kidney protection. The putative modes of protection include cytoskeletal stabilization, anti-inflammatory effects, requirement in autophagy, anti-apoptotic properties, influence over macrophage phenotype and stimulation of regulatory T cells. In

Open access

Chuan Li, Lili Qu, Cullen Farragher, Anthony Vella and Beiyan Zhou

by targeting key regulators. PPARγ directly binds upstream of miR-223 and mediates anti-inflammatory signaling by inhibiting the expression of Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells 5 (NFATt5) and RAS p21 Protein Activator 1 (RASA1), thereby promoting “M2-like” activation. Deletion of miR-223 can abolish PPARγ-regulated M2 activation of murine macrophages in vivo and ex vivo .[ 63 ] In addition, miR-223 inhibits the expression of PBX/Knotted 1 Homeobox 1 (Pknox1), thus suppressing NFκB/JNK signaling and “M1-like” pro-inflammation activation.[ 64 ] miR-223 also

Open access

Ye Tian, Han Deng, Lei Han, Sijun Hu and Xingshun Qi

. investigated the regulatory role of hypoxia on endosialin expression. It showed that CD248/endosialin mRNA and protein levels in human cell lines were significantly higher in hypoxic conditions than normoxic conditions.[ 33 ] HIF-2 alpha binds hypoxia-responsive element at position–976/–969, thereby regulating the endosialin promoter and hypoxic induction of endosialin. Hypothesis Based on the existing knowledge, we hypothesize that hypoxia microenvironment induced by BCS can regulate the expression of CD248/endosialin in HSC via HIF signaling pathway, which then