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References 1. Tsao BP. Update on human systemic lupus erythematosus genetics. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2004; 16:513-21. 2. Zhang H, Yang P, Zhou H, Meng Q, Huang X: Involvement of Foxp3-expressing CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in the development of tolerance induced by transforming growth factor-beta2-treated antigen-presenting cells. Immunology. 2008; 124: 304-14. 3. Namba K, Kitaichi N, Nishida T, Taylor AW. Induction of regulatory T cells by the immunomodulating cytokines alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and transforming growth factor-beta2. J Leukoc Biol

for human embryonic stem cell culture. Stem Cells Dev. 2008; 17:413-22. 20. Amit M, Shariki C, Margulets V, Itskovitz-Eldor J. Feeder layer- and serum-free culture of human embryonic stem cells. Biol Reprod. 2004, 70:837-845. 21. Bendall SC, Stewart MH, Menendez P, George D, Vijayaragavan K, Werbowetski-Ogilvie T, et al. IGF and FGF cooperatively establish the regulatory stem cell niche of pluripotent human cells in vitro. Nature. 2007; 448:1015-21. 22. Lei T, Jacob S, Ajil-Zaraa I, Dubuisson JB, Irion O, Jaconi M, Feki A. Xeno-free derivation and culture of human

References 1. Calderwood SK, Mambula SS, Gray PJ Jr. Extracellular heat shock proteins in cell signaling and immunity. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2007; 1113:28-39. 2. V, Hauet-Broere F, Berlo S, Paul L, van der Zee R, de Kleer I,et al. Stress proteins as inducers and targets of regulatory T cells in arthritis. Int Rev Immunol. 2005; 24:181-97. 3. Pockley AG, Muthana M, Calderwood SK. The dual immunoregulatory roles of stress proteins. Trends Biochem Sci. 2008; 33:71-9. 4. Gupta RS, Ramachandra NB, Bowes T, Singh B. Unusual cellular disposition of the mitochondrial

, Meek D, Lane DP. p53-integrating the complexity. J Pathol. 1996; 180:1-5. 6. Miyashita T, Krajewski S, Krajewska M, Wang HG, Lin HK, Liebermann DA, et al. Tumor suppressor p53 is a regulator of bcl-2 and bax gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Oncogene. 1994; 9:1799-805. 7. Serrano M, Hannon GJ, Beach D. A new regulatory motif in cell cycle control causing specific inhibition of cyclin D/CDK4. Nature. 1993; 366:704-7. 8. Mork J, Lie AK, Glattre E, Hallmans G, Jellum E, Koskela P, et al. Human papillomavirus infection as a risk factor for squamous-cell carcinoma of

:908-13. 5. Lad C, Williams NH, Wolfenden R. The rate of hydrolysis of phosphomonoester dianions and the exceptional catalytic proficiencies of protein and inositol phosphatases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003; 100:5607-10. 6. Virshup DM. Protein phosphatase 2A: a panoply of enzymes. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000; 12:180-5. 7. Eichhorn PJ, Creyghton MP, Bernards R. Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunits and cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009; 1795:1-15. 8. Nakada N, Kuroda K, Kawahara E. Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit Bbeta promotes MAP kinase-mediated migration

. casei lysate alone. L. casei can induce apoptosis in a colorectal cancer cells in vitro [ 3 ]. In vivo the antitumor effects of L. casei on colorectal cancer are mediated by modulation of regulatory T-cells towards a Th 17 -biased immune response [ 31 ]. These findings are consistent with the increased secretion of IL-17 seen following immunization with the combined vaccine in the present study. The antitumor efficacy of this strain of Lactobacilli has also been shown against gastric cancer with a similar mechanism proposed to induce apoptosis. The efficacy was

References 1. Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Murray T, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008; 58: 71-96. 2. Mizukami Y, Kono K, Kawaguchi Y, Akaike H, Kamimura K, Sugai H, Fujii H. CCL17 and CCL22 chemokines within tumor microenvironment are related to accumulation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in gastric cancer. Int J Cancer. 2008; 122:2286-93. 3. Panani AD. Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of gastric cancer: clinical implications. Cancer Lett. 2008; 266:99-115. 4. Quezada SA, Jarvinen LZ, Lind EF, Noelle RJ. CD40/ CD154 interactions

-206. 12. Impey S, McCorkle SR, Cha-Molstad H, Dwyer JM, Yochum GS. Defining the CREB regulon: a genomewide analysis of transcription factor regulatory regions. Cell. 2004; 119:1041-54. 13. Maiese K, Chong ZZ, Shang YC. OutFOXOing disease and disability: The therapeutic potential of targeting FoxO proteins. Trends Mol Med. 2008; 14:219-27. 14. Guo S, Rena G, Cichy S, He X, Cohen P, Unterman T. Phosphorylation of serine 256 by protein kinase B disrupts transactivation by FKHR and mediates effects of insulin on insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 promoter activity

metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in vascular remodeling and vascular disease. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008; 75:346-59. 9. Galis ZS, Khatri JJ. Matrix metalloproteinases in vascular remodeling and atherogenesis: the good, the bad, and the ugly. Circ Res. 2002; 90:251-62. 10. Guo RW, Yang LX, Wang H, Liu B, Lei W. Angiotensin II induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via a nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. Regulatory Peptides. 2008; 147: 37-44. 11. Higuchi S, Ohtsu H, Suzuki H, Shirai H, Frank GD, Eguchi S. Angiotensin II signal

] that GFAP was detected in NPCs derived from hESCs using a feeder-free method. Human neural stem cells isolated from fetal neural tissue also express low levels of GFAP mRNA and little or no S100β [ 46 ]. By contrast, the expression of TLX, also known as NR2E1, was significantly low in feeder-free derived NPCs that exhibited a high level of expression of GFAP when compared with NPCs derived by the EB method. TLX is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays an essential regulatory role in maintaining an undifferentiated state, proliferation, and suppresses astrocyte