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M. Tenerowicz-Zaba, M. Kupkova, M. Kabatova, E. Dudrova, M. Dzupon and M. Sulowski

REFERENCES [1] Hryha, E., Nyborg, L., Dudrova, E., Bengtsson, S. In: Proc. Euro PM2009 - Sintered Steels 1 – Composition. International powder metallurgy congress et exhibition. Copenhagen, 12.-14.10.2009. Vol. 1. Shrewsbury: EPMA, 2009, p. 17 [2] Taylor, GF.: US Patent No. 1,896,854, 1933 [3] Taylor, GF.: US Patent No. 1,896,853, 1933 [4] Crèmer, GD.: US Patent No. 2,355,954, 1944 [5] Lenel, VF.: JOM – the Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS), Trans. AIME, vol. 7, 1955, no. 1, p. 158 [6] Song, X., Liu, X

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D. Rodziňák, J. Čerňan and V. Puchý

Abstract

The article deals with the effect of porosity on the contact fatigue of sintered material type Astaloy CrL with 0.3 and 0.4% C. Sets of samples were used with densities beginning from the value of 7000 kg.m−3 to the value of almost 7859 kg.m−3 which represents almost zero porosity (compact material). It has been found out that the increase of compacting pressure applied simultaneously with temperature results in the reduction of porosity from the value of 9.10% to 0.0005% and increase in hardness from 145 to 193 HV10, depending on the carbon content. Logically there is also an increase in the fatigue life by the contact fatigue tests for the value of 50×106 cycles from the value of 900 MPa to 1150 MPa for samples with 0.3% of C and from 900 MPa to 1300 MPa for samples with 0.4% C. These investigations were also carried out in the past, but to achieve the reduction of porosity, different technonologies were used at each level such as double pressing, hot pressing, saturation, hot forging, etc. In this case, the single technology of “spark plasma sintering” making use of compacting at high temperatures is capable to continuously reduce porosity to zero.

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P. Oslanec and M. Škrobian

Mezbahul-Islam, Ahmad Omar Mostafa, Mamoun Medraj Hindawi: Journal of Materials, vol. 2014, Article ID 704283 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/704283 [6] Pieczonka, T., Schubert, T., Baunack, S.: Sintering Behaviour of Aluminium in Different Atmospheres [7] Chua, AS., Brochu, M., Bishop, DP.: Spark plasma sintering of prealloyed aluminium powders [8] Czerwinski, F.: JOM, May, 2004 [9] Krasovskii, PV.: Inorganic materials, vol. 50, 2014, p.1480, DOI: 10.1134/S0020168514150059 [10] Colombo, A.: Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 81, 1976, p. 397

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Ileana Nicoleta Popescu, Ruxandra Vidu and Vasile Bratu

. Titanium with aligned, elongated pores for orthopedic tissue engineering applications, In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 84A (2) (2008) 402-412. [43] Y. Zhao, M. Taya, Y. Kang, A. Kawasaki, Compression behavior of porous NiTi shape memory alloy, Acta Mater. 53 (2005) 337–343. [44] A. Dudek, M. Klimas, Composites based on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V with an addition of inert ceramics and bioactive ceramics for medical applications fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS method), In: Materialwissenschaft Und Werkstofftechnik, 46 (3) (2015) 237

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Agata Dudek and Barbara Lisiecka

]. Lipinski, T. (2015). Morphology of Impurities in Steel after Desulfurization and Vacuum Degassing, 14th International Scientific Conference: Engineering For Rural Development, pp. 795-800. Marnier, G., Keller, C., Noudem, J. and Hug, E. (2014). Functional properties of a spark plasma sintered ultrafine-grained 316L steel. Materials and Design, [online] Volume 63, pp. 663-640. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306914005020 [Accessed 2 Jul. 2014]. Moteshakker, A. and Danaee, I. (2016). Microstructure and

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Katarzyna Kapustka, Dorota Klimecka-Tatar and Gerhard Ziegmann

Production, 51, 1-22. Borra, C. R., et al.,2016. Selective recovery of rare earths from bauxite residue by combination of sulfation, roasting and leaching . Minerals Engineering, 92, 151-159. Cordier, D. J., Hedrick, J. B., 2012. Rare earths . US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries. Dai, A. X., et al., 2016. Recycling of neodymium and dysprosium from permanent magnets . Penn Engineering. Deflorian, F., Ciaghi, L., Kazior, J., 1992. Electrochemical Characterization of Vacuum Sintered Copper Alloyed Austenitic Stainless-Steel . Werkst

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Vasyl Zhelykh, Malgorzata Ulewicz, Krystyna Kozak, Olena Savchenko and Mariana Kasynets

parameters on the properties of electro-spark deposited coatings. Arch. Metall. Mater., 63, 809-816. Razak, A., Majid, Z., Azmi, W., Azmi, W., Ruslan, M., Choobchian, Sh., Najafi, G., Sopian, K., 2016, Review on matrix thermal absorber designs for solar air collector . Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 64, 682-693. Scendo, M., Trela, J., Radek, N., 2014. Influence of laser power on the corrosive resistance of WC-Cu coating . Surf. Coat. Tech., 259, 401-407. Skrzypczak-Pietraszek, E., Piska, K., Pietraszek, J., 2018. Enhanced production of the

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Robert Ulewicz and Livia V. Lazar

–268. Pietraszek, J., Skrzypczak-Pietraszek, E., 2014. The Optimization of the Technological Process with the Fuzzy Regression , in: Szczotok, A et al. (Eds.), Terotechnology, Advanced Materials Research. p. 151+. Pietraszek, J., Szczotok, A., Kolomycki, M., Radek, N., Kozien, E., 2017. Non-parametric assessment of the uncertainty in the analysis of the airfoil blade traces. Metal 2017: 26 th Int. Conf. on Metallurgy and Materials, 1412-1418. Pliszka, I., Radek, N., Gadek-Moszczak, A., Fabian, P., Paraska, O., 2018. Surface improvement by WC-Cu electro-spark