References  M. Nygren, Z. Shen, On the preparation of bio-, nano- and structural ceramics and composites by spark plasma sintering Solid State Sciences 5 , 125-131 (2003).  J.R. Groza, A. Zavaliangos, Sintering activation by external electrical field, Mater. Sci. Eng. A287 , 171-177 (2000).  O. Zgalat- Lozynskyy, M. Herrmann, A. Ragulya, Spark plasma sintering of TiCN nanopowders in non-linear heating and loading regimes J. Europ. Ceram. Soc. 31 , 809-813 (2011).  V
O. Zgalat-Lozynskyy, M. Herrmann, A. Ragulya, M. Andrzejczuk and A. Polotai
properties of the steel composites prepared by spark plasma sintering, Materials Science and Technology, (2014) (in press).  CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, Third Edition Edited by James F. Shackelford and William Alexander CRC Press, 509 (2001).
I. Sulima, G. Boczkal and P. Palka
References  M. Tokita, Trends in Advanced SPS Spark Plasma Sintering Systems and Technology, Journal of the Society of Powder Technology Japan 30, 11, 790-804 (1993).  X. Song, X. Liu, J. Zhang, Mechanism of conductive powder microstructure evolution in the process of SPS, Science in China Ser. E Engineering & Materials Science 48, 3, 258-269 (2005).  D.M. Hulber, A. Anders, J. Andersson, E.J. Lavernia, A.K. Mukherjee, A discussion on the absence of plasma in spark plasma sintering, Scripta Materialia
Y.-K. Jeong, Y.S. Kim and S.-T. Oh
An optimum route to fabricate the Cu-based SiC composites with homogeneous microstructure was investigated. Three methods for developing the densified composites with sound interface between Cu and SiC were compared on the basis of the resulting microstructures. Starting with three powder mixtures of elemental Cu and SiC, elemental Cu and PCS coated SiC or PCS and Cunitrate coated SiC was used to obtain Cu-based SiC composites. SEM analysis revealed that the composite fabricated by spark plasma sintering using elemental SiC and Cu powder mixture showed inhomogeneous microstructure. Conversely, dense microstructure with sound interface was observed in the sintered composites using powder mixture of pre-coated PCS and Cu-nitrate onto SiC. The relationship between powder processing and microstructure was discussed based on the role of coating layer for the wettability
M. Tenerowicz-Zaba, M. Kupkova, M. Kabatova, E. Dudrova, M. Dzupon and M. Sulowski
REFERENCES  Hryha, E., Nyborg, L., Dudrova, E., Bengtsson, S. In: Proc. Euro PM2009 - Sintered Steels 1 – Composition. International powder metallurgy congress et exhibition. Copenhagen, 12.-14.10.2009. Vol. 1. Shrewsbury: EPMA, 2009, p. 17  Taylor, GF.: US Patent No. 1,896,854, 1933  Taylor, GF.: US Patent No. 1,896,853, 1933  Crèmer, GD.: US Patent No. 2,355,954, 1944  Lenel, VF.: JOM – the Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS), Trans. AIME, vol. 7, 1955, no. 1, p. 158  Song, X., Liu, X
M. Lis, A. Wrona, J. Mazur, C. Dupont, M. Kamińska, D. Kopyto and M. Kwarciński
The paper presents results of investigations of the obtained nanocomposite materials based on silver with addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The powder of carbon nanotubes content from 0.1 to 3 wt. % was produced by application of powder metallurgy methods, through mixing and high-energetic milling, and also chemical methods. Modification of carbon nanotubes included electroless deposition of silver particles on the carbon nanotube active surfaces and chemical reduction with strong reducing agent – sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The obtained powder mixtures were consolidated by SPS – Spark Plasma Sintering method. The formed composites were subjected to tests of relative density, electrical conductivity and electro-erosion properties. Detailed examinations of the structure with application of X-ray microanalysis, with consideration of carbon nanotubes distribution, were also carried out. The effect of manufacturing methods on properties of the obtained composites was observed.
D. Rodziňák, J. Čerňan and V. Puchý
The article deals with the effect of porosity on the contact fatigue of sintered material type Astaloy CrL with 0.3 and 0.4% C. Sets of samples were used with densities beginning from the value of 7000 kg.m−3 to the value of almost 7859 kg.m−3 which represents almost zero porosity (compact material). It has been found out that the increase of compacting pressure applied simultaneously with temperature results in the reduction of porosity from the value of 9.10% to 0.0005% and increase in hardness from 145 to 193 HV10, depending on the carbon content. Logically there is also an increase in the fatigue life by the contact fatigue tests for the value of 50×106 cycles from the value of 900 MPa to 1150 MPa for samples with 0.3% of C and from 900 MPa to 1300 MPa for samples with 0.4% C. These investigations were also carried out in the past, but to achieve the reduction of porosity, different technonologies were used at each level such as double pressing, hot pressing, saturation, hot forging, etc. In this case, the single technology of “spark plasma sintering” making use of compacting at high temperatures is capable to continuously reduce porosity to zero.
P. Dharmaiah, H.-S. Kim, K.-H. Lee and S.-J. Hong
In this study, single phase polycrystalline Zn4Sb3 as well as 11 at.% Zn-rich Zn4Sb3 alloy having ε-Zn4Sb3 (majority phase) and Zn (minority phase) phases bulk samples produced by gas-atomization and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. The crystal structures were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-sectional microstructure were observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The internal grain microstructure of 11at.% Zn-rich Zn4Sb3 powders shows lamellar structure. Relative density, Vickers hardness and crack lengths were measured to investigate the effect of sintering temperature of Zn4Sb3 samples which are sintered at 653, 673 and 693 K. Relative density of the single phase bulk Zn4Sb3 sample reached to 99.2% of its theoretical density. The micro Vickers hardness of three different sintering temperatures were found around 2.17 – 2.236 GPa.
A. Mróz, D. Garbiec, A. Wielowiejska-Giertuga, T. Wiśniewski, M. Gierzyńska-Dolna and A. Martyła
The influence of spark plasma sintering parameters on the structural, mechanical and tribological characteristics of the Ti6Al4V alloy, which is used as implant material in biomedical engineering, was investigated. The experimental data confirm that full density and attractive mechanical properties can be obtained using the spark plasma sintering method. Tribological tests, performed in dry conditions, allowed the authors to indicate the most suitable sintering parameters. The material characterized by the highest wear resistance was selected for further tribological testing in articulation with UHMWPE in simulated body fluids. Although the weight of the polymeric material articulating against the sintered Ti6Al4V was slightly higher compared to the UHMWPE articulating against the reference material (Ti6Al4V rod), the friction coefficient was lower.
S.H. Park, D.B. Kim, R.G. Lee and I.J. Son
This study focuses on the fabrication of thermal management material for power electronics applications using graphite flake reinforced copper composites. The manufacturing route involved electroless plating of copper in the graphite flake and sintering process are optimized. The microstructures, interface, thermal properties, and relative density of graphite/Cu composites are investigated. The relative density of the composites shows 99.5% after sintering. Thermal conductivities and coefficients of thermal expansion of this composites were 400-480 Wm−1K−1 and 8 to 5 ppm k−1, respectively. Obtained graphite nanoplatelets-reinforced composites exhibit excellent thermo-physical properties to meet the heat dispersion and matching requirements of power electronic devices to the packaging materials.