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Niosomes: a review of their structure, properties, methods of preparation, and medical applications

. Negative charge inducers, including dicetyl phosphate, dihexadecyl phosphate, and lipoamino acid, and positive charge inducers, including stearylamine and cetylpyridinium chloride, help to stabilize the vesicles [ 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ]. Nonionic surfactants in niosomes tend to orient themselves in such a way that hydrophilic end faces outward (toward the aqueous phase), whereas the hydrophobic end faces inward to each other to form a closed bilayer structure, which encloses solutes in an aqueous solution [ 20 ]. As a result, the closed bilayer structure of niosomes has

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Increased protein excretion, including albumin, by children of patients with urolithiasis

Urolithiasis is a common urologic problem worldwide, with a lifetime prevalence is 7.14% to 11.10% [ 1 - 3 ]. The prevalence of urolithiasis is up to 16.7% in the northeast region of Thailand [ 4 ]. Urinary stones form when the solute concentration in urine exceeds the saturation point, called a supersaturation state. In this state, the ionic lithogenic solutes, such as calcium, oxalate, phosphate, or uric acid spontaneously form a complex, and then insoluble complexes become crystals in the luminal part of nephrons. Tubular epithelial cells take up these

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Transient bioimpedance monitoring of mechanotransduction in artificial tissue during indentation

solution which could negate this effect [ 70 ]. As time progresses, the fluid flows slowly through the network and the polymer gradually recoils in the radial direction, the fluid pressure decreases and the dilation becomes more negative [ 70 ]. This continues during the ‘hold’ phase of the indentation when the indentation depth of the sphere is kept constant until a steady state is reached and the chemical potential of the solvent and solutes tend to zero. This can be observed in Fig. 8 , where the measured force increases quickly with indentation depth with

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