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Vitrinite equivalent reflectance of Silurian black shales from the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

. Kozłowski, W., Domańska-Siuda, J., & Nawrocki, J. (2014). Geochemistry and petrology of the Upper Silurian greywackes from the Holy Cross Mountains (central Poland): implications for the Caledonian history of the southern part of the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). Geological Quarterly, 58 (2), 311-336. DOI: 10.7306/gq.1160. Malec, J. (2000). Wstępne dane o przeobrażeniach termicznych materii organicznej w szarogłazach górnego syluru Gór Świętokrzyskich. Posiedzenia Naukowe Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego, 56 , 109-111. Malec, J. (2006). Sylur w

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Graptolite turnover and δ13Corg excursion in the upper Wenlock shales (Silurian) of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland)

References Bełka Z., Valverde-Vaquero P., Dörr W., Ahrendt H., Wemmer K., Franke W. & Schäfer J. 2002: Accretion of first Gondwana- derived terranes at the margin of Baltica. In: Winchester J.A., Pharaoh T.C. & Verniers J. (Eds.): Palaeozoic amalgamation of Central Europe. Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ. 201, 19–36. Bickert T., Pätzold J., Samtleben C. & Munnecke A. 1997: Paleoenvironmental changes in the Silurian indicated by stable isotopes in brachiopod shells from Gotland, Sweden. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61, 2717–2730. Blain J.A., Ray D

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Stratigraphic correlation potential of magnetic susceptibility and gamma-ray spectrometric variations in calciturbiditic facies (Silurian-Devonian boundary, Prague Synclinorium, Czech Republic)

References Bábek O., Přikryl T. & Hladil J. 2007: Progressive drowning of carbonate platform in the Moravo-Silesian Basin (Czech Republic) before the Frasnian/Famenian event: facies, compositional variations and gamma-ray spectrometry. Facies 53, 293-316. Brocke R., Wilde V., Fatka O. & Mann U. 2002: Chitinozoa and acritarchs at the Silurian/Devonian boundary: Examples from the Barrandian area. In: Brock G. A. & Talent J. (Eds.): 1 st International Palaeontological Congress. Abstracts , Sydney, 192

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The late Silurian–Middle Devonian long-term eustatic cycle as a possible control on the global generic diversity dynamics of bivalves and gastropods

fossil record and molecular phylogenetics. Palaeontology 50, 23-40. Blodgett, R.B., Rohr, D.M. & Boucot, A.J., 1990. Early and Middle Devonian gastropod biogeography. [In:] W.S. McKerrow & C.R. Scotese (Eds): Palaeozoic Palaeogeography and Biogeography . Geological Society Memoir 12, 277-284. Calner, M., 2005a. Silurian carbonate platforms and extinction events - ecosystem changes exemplified from Gotland, Sweden. Facies 51, 584-591. Calner, M., 2005b. A Late Silurian extinction event and anachronistic period

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Do the Available Data Permit Clarifcation of the Possible Dependence of Palaeozoic Brachiopod Generic Diversity Dynamics on Global Sea-Level Changes? A Viewpoint

References Aldridge, R.J., Jeppson, L. & Dorning, K.J., 1993. Early Silurian oceanic episodes and events. Journal of the Geological Society, London 150, 501–513. Benton, M.J., Dunhill, A.M., Lloyd, G.T. & Marx, F.G., 2011. Assessing the quality of the fossil record: in sights from vertebrates. [In:] McGowan, A.J. & Smith, A.B. (Eds): Comparing the Geological and Fossil Records: Implications for Biodiversity Studies. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 358, 63–94. Birks, H.J.B., Lotter, A.F., Juggins, S. & Smol, J.P. (Eds), 2012

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Palaeo-earthquake events during the late Early Palaeozoic in the central Tarim Basin (NW China): evidence from deep drilling cores

deformation of sediments. Chapman & Hall (London), 362 pp. Marco, S. & Agnon, A., 1995. Prehistoric earthquake deformations near Masada, Dead Sea graben. Geology 23, 695-698. McCalpin, J. (Ed.), 1996. Paleoseismology. Academic Press (New York), 382 pp. Miao, Q. & Fu, H., 2013. Sequence stratigraphy of the Silurian strata in the northern and central Tarim Basin. Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology 33, 34-41 (in Chinese with English abstract). Mills, P.C., 1983. Genesis and diagnostic value of soft-sediment deformation structures - a review. Sedimentary

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Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep

Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep

Hydrocarbon gases from Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous reservoirs in the Paleozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep were generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes ("oil window"). They contain only insignificant amounts of microbial methane and ethane. These gaseous hydrocarbons were generated from Lower Carboniferous and/or Middle Jurassic mixed Type III/II kerogen and from Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen, respectively. Methane, ethane and carbon dioxide of natural gas from the Middle Devonian reservoir contain a significant microbial component whereas their small thermogenic component is most probably genetically related to Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen. The gaseous hydrocarbons from the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Mesozoic basement were generated both by microbial carbon dioxide reduction and thermogenic processes. The presence of microbial methane generated by carbon dioxide reduction suggests that in some deposits the traps had already been formed and sealed during the migration of microbial methane, presumably in the immature source rock environment. The traps were successively supplied with thermogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons generated at successively higher maturation stages of kerogen. The higher hydrocarbons of the majority of deposits were generated from mixed Type III/II kerogen deposited in the Middle Jurassic, Lower Carboniferous and/or Devonian strata. Type II or mixed Type II/III kerogen could be the source for hydrocarbons in both the Tarnów and Brzezówka deposits. In the Cenomanian sandstone reservoir of the Brzezowiec deposit and one Upper Jurassic carbonate block of the Lubaczów deposit microbial methane prevails. It migrated from the autochthonous Miocene strata.

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Clay mineralogy of the Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic sedimentary sequence from the northern part of the Arabian Platform, Hazro (Diyarbakır, Southeast Anatolia)

Clay mineralogy of the Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic sedimentary sequence from the northern part of the Arabian Platform, Hazro (Diyarbakır, Southeast Anatolia)

The Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic units in the Diyarbakır-Hazro region consist of sandstone (subarkose, quartz arenite), mudstone, shale, coal, marl, dolomitic marl, limestone (biomicrite, lithobiosparite, biosparite with lithoclast, dololithobiosparite, dolomitic cherty sparite) and dolomite (dolosparite, dolosparite with lithoclast, biodolosparite with glauconite). These units exhibit no slaty cleavage although they are oriented parallel to bedding planes. The sedimentary rocks contain mainly calcite, dolomite, quartz, feldspar, goethite and phyllosilicates (kaolinite, illite-smectite (I-S), illite and glauconite) associated with small amounts of gypsum, jarosite, hematite and gibbsite. The amounts of quartz and feldspar in the Silurian-Devonian units and of dolomite in the Permian-Triassic units increase. Kaolinite is more commonly observed in the Silurian-Devonian and Permian units, whereas illite and I-S are found mostly in the Middle Devonian and Triassic units. Vertical distributions of clay minerals depend on lithological differences rather than diagenetic/metamorphic grade. Authigenetic kaolinites as pseudo-hexagonal bouquets and glauconite and I-S as fine-grained flakes or filaments are more abundantly present in the levels of clastic and carbonate rocks. Illite quantities in R3 and R1 I-S vary between 80 and 95 %. 2M 1+1M d illites/I-S are characterized by moderate b cell values (9.005-9.040, mean 9.020 Å), whereas glauconites have higher values in the range of 9.054-9.072, mean 9.066 Å. KI values of illites (0.72-1.56, mean 1.03 Δ2θ°) show no an important vertical difference. Inorganic (mineral assemblages, KI, polytype) and organic maturation (vitrinite reflection) parameters in the Paleozoic-Triassic units agree with each others in majority that show high-grade diagenesis and catagenesis (light petroleum-wet gas hydrocarbon zone), respectively. The Paleozoic-Triassic sequence in this region was deposited in the environment of a passive continental margin and entirely resembles the Eastern Taurus Para-Autochthon Unit (Geyikdağı Unit) in respect of lithology and diagenetic grade.

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The Odivelas Limestone: evidence for a Middle Devonian reef system in western Ossa-Morena Zone (Portugal)

-79. McCoy F. 1850: On some new genera and species of Silurian Radiata in the collection of the University of Cambridge. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 2 nd Ser. 6, 270-290. Milne-Edwards H. & Haime J. 1851: Monographie des polypiers fossiles des terrains palaeozoiques, palaeozoîques, précédé d'un tableau général de la classification des polypes. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur. 5, 1-502. Neumann P. 2007: Crinoidea-Lilijice. Web page http://www.sweb.cz/new.petr/Galerie/Cupressocrinites.html Oliveira J

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Devonian in Turkey — a review

deposition in the Southeastern Anatolia. International Workshop Depositional Environments of the Gondwanan and Laurasian Devonian. Abstracts and field trip guidebooks. ISBN: 975-6395-45-1, 19-20. Brocke R., Bozdoğan N., Mann U. & Wilde V. 2004: Palynology of the Silurian/Devonian Boundary interval at the northern margin of the Arabian Plate (Hazro area, SE Turkey). Polen 14, 164-165. Carls P. 1973: Strophomenids of the Lower Devonian Kartal formation, Istanbul, Paleozoic of Istanbul. Ege Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi

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