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Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep
Hydrocarbon gases from Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous reservoirs in the Paleozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep were generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes ("oil window"). They contain only insignificant amounts of microbial methane and ethane. These gaseous hydrocarbons were generated from Lower Carboniferous and/or Middle Jurassic mixed Type III/II kerogen and from Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen, respectively. Methane, ethane and carbon dioxide of natural gas from the Middle Devonian reservoir contain a significant microbial component whereas their small thermogenic component is most probably genetically related to Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen. The gaseous hydrocarbons from the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Mesozoic basement were generated both by microbial carbon dioxide reduction and thermogenic processes. The presence of microbial methane generated by carbon dioxide reduction suggests that in some deposits the traps had already been formed and sealed during the migration of microbial methane, presumably in the immature source rock environment. The traps were successively supplied with thermogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons generated at successively higher maturation stages of kerogen. The higher hydrocarbons of the majority of deposits were generated from mixed Type III/II kerogen deposited in the Middle Jurassic, Lower Carboniferous and/or Devonian strata. Type II or mixed Type II/III kerogen could be the source for hydrocarbons in both the Tarnów and Brzezówka deposits. In the Cenomanian sandstone reservoir of the Brzezowiec deposit and one Upper Jurassic carbonate block of the Lubaczów deposit microbial methane prevails. It migrated from the autochthonous Miocene strata.
Clay mineralogy of the Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic sedimentary sequence from the northern part of the Arabian Platform, Hazro (Diyarbakır, Southeast Anatolia)
The Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic units in the Diyarbakır-Hazro region consist of sandstone (subarkose, quartz arenite), mudstone, shale, coal, marl, dolomitic marl, limestone (biomicrite, lithobiosparite, biosparite with lithoclast, dololithobiosparite, dolomitic cherty sparite) and dolomite (dolosparite, dolosparite with lithoclast, biodolosparite with glauconite). These units exhibit no slaty cleavage although they are oriented parallel to bedding planes. The sedimentary rocks contain mainly calcite, dolomite, quartz, feldspar, goethite and phyllosilicates (kaolinite, illite-smectite (I-S), illite and glauconite) associated with small amounts of gypsum, jarosite, hematite and gibbsite. The amounts of quartz and feldspar in the Silurian-Devonian units and of dolomite in the Permian-Triassic units increase. Kaolinite is more commonly observed in the Silurian-Devonian and Permian units, whereas illite and I-S are found mostly in the Middle Devonian and Triassic units. Vertical distributions of clay minerals depend on lithological differences rather than diagenetic/metamorphic grade. Authigenetic kaolinites as pseudo-hexagonal bouquets and glauconite and I-S as fine-grained flakes or filaments are more abundantly present in the levels of clastic and carbonate rocks. Illite quantities in R3 and R1 I-S vary between 80 and 95 %. 2M1+1Md illites/I-S are characterized by moderate b cell values (9.005-9.040, mean 9.020 Å), whereas glauconites have higher values in the range of 9.054-9.072, mean 9.066 Å. KI values of illites (0.72-1.56, mean 1.03 Δ2θ°) show no an important vertical difference. Inorganic (mineral assemblages, KI, polytype) and organic maturation (vitrinite reflection) parameters in the Paleozoic-Triassic units agree with each others in majority that show high-grade diagenesis and catagenesis (light petroleum-wet gas hydrocarbon zone), respectively. The Paleozoic-Triassic sequence in this region was deposited in the environment of a passive continental margin and entirely resembles the Eastern Taurus Para-Autochthon Unit (Geyikdağı Unit) in respect of lithology and diagenetic grade.
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