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Jean Paul Kamdem, Sílvio Terra Stefanello, Aline Augusti Boligon, Caroline Wagner, Ige Joseph Kade, Romaiana Picada Pereira, Alessandro De Souza Preste, Daniel Henrique Roos, Emily Pansera Waczuk, Andre Storti Appel, Margareth Linde Athayde, Diogo Onofre Souza and João Batista Teixeira Rocha
Italian Allium species, Plant Food Hum. Nutr . 66 (2011) 11-16; DOI: 10.1007/s11130-010-0204-2.
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Erzsébet Domokos, Lilla Laura Csősz, Béla Darkó and László Jakab-Farkas
Recent studies have shown that vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae stimulate plant growth in case of Artemisia annua plants. According to these studies mycorrhization can enhance plant height and biomasses, shoot branching and inter-nodal length, foliar glandular hair density, and nutrient status of shoots and leafs. Contradictory data were obtained in case of leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. The effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on roots, shoots and leafs anatomy of A. annua have not been studied yet. The aim of this paper was to compare the microscopic characteristics of the vegetative organs from the Artemisia annua plants treated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae, with those from the control plants. Rhizophagus irregularis influenced the development of vascular tissues in root and stem of Artemisia plants by increasing their surface in the organs. Mycorrhization also reduced the percentage of lignification in the cortex of the root, increased the percentage of palisade parenchyma in leaf and had a positive effect on foliar glandular hair density. Further investigations are necessary to find out the role of these histo-anatomic alterations in the growth and development of Artemisia plants.
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Jelena Torić, Ana Karković Marković, Cvijeta Jakobušić Brala and Monika Barbarić
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Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Neil Anthony Koorbanally and Md. Shahidul Islam
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Tania Shamim Rizvi, Abdul Latif Khan, Liaqat Ali, Narjis Al-Mawali, Fazal Mabood, Javid Hussain, Muhammad Adnan and Ahmed Al-Harrasi
The present study investigates the potential role of medicinal plants Citrullus colocynthis and Tephrosia apollinea in ameliorating the oxidative stress developed during the generation of reactive oxygen species. Organic extracts of different organs (leaf, stem and root) of these medicinal plants obtained in n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water were assayed for radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, anti-lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. The total phenolic content (TPC) of both selected medicinal plants was also evaluated. The results indicated that extracts of T. apollinea leaf, stem and root have higher TPC compared to those of C. colocynthis. Similarly, the results of the present study revealed higher bioactivity of C. colocynthis than that of T. apollinea in various antioxidant assays. Various plant parts of each plant were also compared.
D. Tekeľová, J. Tóth, Sz. Czigle and A. Koutsoulas
Salvia officinalis L. (sage) is an important essential oil containing Mediterranean medicinal plant that is commonly cultivated for pharmaceutical uses. In addition to essential oil, other compounds participate on the biological effects of sage, mainly diterpenes, triterpenes and phenolic compounds of the hydroxycinnamic and flavonoid types. Sage essential oil content is known to differ in plant parts, and to be influenced by plant phenophase, climatic and edaphic conditions. This work deals with the study of total hydroxycinnamic derivatives (THD), and specifically rosmarinic acid (RA), content variation in different aerial parts of sage linked to different harvest times. Dry sage leaves (Salviae officinalis folium) THD content was quantified using a pharmacopoeial method, and varied between 3.06 % and 3.52 % in different harvest times, with maxima in youngest plant shoot leaves and newly-grown shoots in September. Sage stems showed similar THD content variations when linked to harvest times, however with lower percentage, 1.33 - 3.04 %. Rosmarinic acid variability showed the same trends, its content ranged between 0.76 % and 1.65 % in leaves, and between 0.19 % and 0.83 % in stems, respectively. Highest percentages of both THD and RA were found in top leaves, lowest in leaves from the middle of the stem. When linked to plant phenophase, the content of THD and RA decreased at flowering time.
Olajumoke A. Oyebode, Ochuko L. Erukainure, Neil A. Koorbanally and Md. Shahidul Islam
In this study, we identified bioactive compounds from the ethanolic extracts of the leaves, stem bark and root bark of Acalypha wilkesiana through GC-MS analysis and investigated the effects of these extracts on some of the enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes. Plant parts were extracted sequentially with ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of long-chain alkyl acids, esters, ketones and alcohols including phytol and phytol acetate along with some secondary metabolites such as xanthone, vitamin E and various types of sterols including stigmasterol, campesterol and sitosterol. Ethanolic extracts of all the parts showed a dose- -dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity. The extracts also demonstrated anti-lipase activity. The ethanolic extract of root bark showed the highest inhibition of enzymes compared to other extracts. The EC50 values (concentrations for 50 % inhibition) of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase inhibition were 35.75 ± 1.95, 6.25 ± 1.05 and 101.33 ± 5.21 μg mL-1, resp. The study suggests that A. wilkesiana ethanolic extracts have the ability to inhibit the activity of enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes. Further studies are needed to confirm the responsible bioactive compounds in this regard.
Gaurav Lodhi, Hemant Singh, Kamlesh Pant and Zeashan Hussain
Hepatoprotective effects of Calotropis gigantea extract against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats
Ethanolic extract (50 %) of stems of Calotropis gigantea R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) at doses of 250 and 500 mg kg-1 were studied for hepatoprotective activity in male Wistar rats with liver damage induced using carbon tetrachloride, 2 mL kg-1 twice a week. The protective effect of C. gigantea extract was compared with the standard drug silymarin. Various biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxidedismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated. The results revealed that the C. gigantea extract significantly decreased AST, ALT (p < 0.001) and lipid peroxide (p < 0.01) levels. The antioxidant parameters GSH, GPx, SOD and catalase levels were increased considerably compared to their levels in groups not treated with C. gigantea extract.