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Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells—Derived Exosomes in Osteoarthritis Treatment

REFERENCES 1. Admyre, C., Grunewald, J., Thyberg, J., Gripenbäck, S., Tornling G., Eklund A., 2003: Exosomes with major histo-compatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules are present in human BAL fluid. Eur. Respir. J. , 22, 578—583. 2. Bruno, S., Grange, C., Deregibus, M. C., 2009: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles protect against acute tubular injury. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. , 20, 1053—1067. 3. Caby, M. P., Lankar, D., Vincendeau-Scherrer, C., Raposo, G., Bonnerot, C., 2005: Exosomal-like vesicles are present in

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Effects of Cell Seeding Methods on Chondrogenic Differentiation of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Polyhydroxybutyrate/Chitosan Scaffolds

REFERENCES 1. Barry, F. P., Murphy, J. M., 2004: Review Mesenchymal stem cells: clinical applications and biological characterization. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol , 36, 568—584. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2003.11.001. 2. Bornes, T. D., Jomha, N. M., Mulet-Sierra, A., Adesida, A. B., 2016: Optimal seeding densities for in vitro chondrogenesis of two- and three-dimensional-isolated and expanded bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells within a porous collagen scaffold. Tissue Engn. C: Methods , 22, 208— 220. DOI: 10.1089/ten.tec.2015

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Anthelmintic Activity of Hymenodictyon pachyanta Stem Bark Extracts against Haemonchus Contortus

Abstract

The development of host resistance to anthelmintics and the increasing cost of commercial anthelmintics have encouraged the need for the in vitro anthelmintic evaluation of crude extract and fractions of Hymenodictyon pachyanta plant as alternative drugs against Haemonchus contortus. H. contortus is one of the most prevalent and highly pathogenic parasitic nematodes in small ruminant farming globally. H. pachyanta stem bark is a prospective plant used by the local and indigenous farmers of Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria. The stem bark of H. pachyanta were collected, dried, pulverized and extracted with 80 % methanol. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of these crude extract and fractions against H. contortus in sheep and goats. The two extracts (crude and fractions) of H. pachyanta were tested by the egg hatch assay (EHA) and the larval development inhibition assays (LDIA) and to compared the results with albendazole (as the positive control). The concentrations for the crude extract and albendazole used for this study were 0.78, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25 and 12.5 mg.ml−1. The results demonstrated that the crude extracts, fractions and albendazole all at the concentration doses of 12.5 mg.ml−1 produced 100 % inhibition of egg hatching and larval development. Statistically, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mean percentage inhibition of egg hatching and larval development inhibition of the crude extracts and fractions when compared with albendazole. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed with n-butanol fraction which inhibited 96.17 % of egg hatchability. All of the extracts and albendazole showed ovicidal and larvicidal effects and were able to induce over 50 % of the egg hatching and mortality of larvae at the concentration ranges of 0.78—12.5 mg.ml−1. The results obtained from our study suggest that H. pachyanta had ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H. contortus and that the bioactive plants compounds responsible for this effect could be attributed to the presence of tannins, alkaloids and the saponins contained in the crude extracts.

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Acquisition and Expansion of Adult Rat Bone Marrow Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

REFERENCES 1. Animal Protection Act of Slovakia No. 15/1995, part 39 (In Slovak), 1250—1255. 2. Caplan, A. I., Dennis, J. E., 2006: Mesenchymal stem cells as trophic mediators. J. Cell. Biochem. , 98, 1076—1084. 3. Chesier, S. H., Kalani, M. Y. S., Lim, M., Ailles, L., Huhn, S. L., Weissman, I. L., 2009: A neurosurgeon’s guide to stem cells, cancer stem cells, and brain tumor stem cells. Neurosurgery , 65, 237—250. 4. Čížková, D., Rosocha, J., Vanický, I., Jergová, S., Čížek, M., 2006: Transplants of human mesenchymal stem cells

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Spinal Cord Injuries in Dogs Part II: Standards of Care, Prognosis and New Perspectives

REFERENCES 1. Adams, M. M., Hicks, A. L., 2005: Spasticity after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord , 43, 577—586. 2. Akhtar, A. Z., Pippin, J. J., Sandusky, C. B., 2008: Animal models in spinal cord injury: a review. Rev. Neurosci. , 19, 47—60. 3. Badner, A., Vawda, R., Laliberte, A., Hong, J., Mikhail, M., Jose, A., et al., 2016: Early intravenous delivery of human brain stromal cells modulates systemic inflammation and leads to vasoprotection in traumatic spinal cord injury. Stem Cells Transl. Med. , 5, 991—1003. 4. Bockurt, G

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Dorsal Branches of Abdominal Aorta in the Rabbit and the European Hare

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical arrangement of the branches arising from the dorsal surface of the aorta abdominalis in the rabbit and the hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. After polymerization of the casting medium, the maceration was carried out in a KOH solution. We found different variations in; the number of arteries, level of their origin and arrangement. The aa. lumbales of the same level arose by means of a common trunk or their origin was independent. The aa. lumbales VI or aa. lumbales VI et VII originated also from the a. sacralis mediana. By aa. lumbales we found an important interspecies difference in; number, diameter, ramification and density of dorsal branches, which are designated for the dorsal muscles of the body stem. All listed parameters of branches were higher in the hare. This anatomical arrangement of dorsal branches is adapted to the higher movement activity of the hare. According to our results, it can be concluded that the anatomical arrangement of the branches of the aorta abdominalis shows a higher number of variations in the domesticated rabbit in comparison with the hare.

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A Histopathological Study of Ischemic and Compressive Paraplegia in Dogs

References 1. Acher, C., Wynn, M., 2012: Paraplegia after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery: not just assisted circulation, hypothermic arrest, clamp and sew, or TEVAR. Ann. Cardiothorac. Surg., 1, 365-372. 2. Adams, F., 1849: The Genuine Works of Hippocrates. Translated from Greek. Section II. Hippocratic Treatises. S. 24-132. London, Sydenham Society. 3. Ahuja, C. S., Fehlings, M., 2016: Concise review: Bridging the gap: Novel neuroregenerative and neuroprotective strategies in spinal cord injury. Stem Cell

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Intestinal Mucus Layer and Mucins (A Review)

.): Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 3rd edn., Raven, New York, NY, 1255-1284. 10. Fukata, M., Abreu, M. T., 2009: Pathogen recognition receptors, cancer and inflammation in the gut. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol., 9, 680-687. 11. Goosney, D. L., Gruenheid, S., Finlay, B. B, 2000: Gut feelings: enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) interactions with the host. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol., 16, 173-189. 12. Gordon, J. I., Schmidt, G. H., Roth, K. A., 1992: Studies of intestinal stem cells using normal, chimeric, and transgenic mice. FASEB

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The Difference in the Mucus Organization Between the Small and Large Intestine and Its Protection of Selected Natural Substances. A Review

REFERENCES 1. Abiodun, O. O., Rodriguez-Nogales, A., Algieri, F., Gomez-Caravaca, A. M., Segura-Carretero, A., Utrilla, M. P., et al., 2016: Antiinflamatory and immunomodulatory activity of an ethanolic extract from the stem bark of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae): in vitro and in vivo evidences. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 192, 309—319. 2. Aliakbarpour, H. R., Chamani, M., Rahimi, G., Sadeghi, A. A., Qujeq, D., 2012: The Bacillus subtilis and lactic acid bacteria probiotics influence intestinal mucin gene expression, histomorphology and

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Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Transport of Nanobodies Across the Blood-Brain Barrier

. Nature , 363, 446—8. 25. Jain, K. K., 2012: Nanobiotechnology-based strategies for crossing the blood-brain barrier. Nanomedicine , 7, 1225—1233. 26. Li, T., Bourgeois, J. P., Celli, S., Glacial, F., Le Sourd, A. M., Mecheri, S., et al., 2012: Cell-penetrating anti-GFAP VHH and corresponding fluorescent fusion protein VHH-GFP spontaneously cross the blood-brain barrier and specifically recognize astrocytes: application to brain imaging. FASEB J. , 26, 3969—3979. 27. Lim, D. A., Huang, Y.-C., Alvarez-Buylla, A., 2007: The adult neural stem cell

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