epicuticular waxes on living plant surfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM). J. Exp. Bot. 55: 711-718. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erh077 Riederer M. & Müller C. (eds.). 2006. Biology of the Plant Cuticle. 438 pp. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. Tomaszewski D. & Zieliński J. 2014. Epicuticular wax structures on stems and comparison between stems and leaves - A survey. Flora 209: 215-232. DOI: 10.1016/j. flora.2014.03.001
Dominik Tomaszewski and Jerzy Zieliński
. Urząd Miasta Krakowa, Wydział Kształtowania Środowiska, Kraków. Dudley S. A. & Schm idt J. 1995. Genetic differentiation in morphological responses to simulated foliage shade between populations of Impatiens capensis from open and woodland sites. Funct. Ecol. 9(3): 655-666. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2390158 Dudley S. A. & Schm idt J. 1996. Testing the adaptive plasticity hypothesis: Density-dependent selection on manipulated stem length in Impatiens capensis. Amer. Nat. 147: 445-465. http://dx.doi.org/10
Kinga Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt, Maciej Kozak and Katarzyna Kozłowska-Kozak
The investigations presented here were carried out in years 2013-14, in a Molinietum caeruleae meadow with interrupted plant cover caused by animal activity (patch I); abandoned Molinietum caeruleae meadows with untouched plant canopy, dominated by species with considerable height of the above-ground parts (patches II-VI); as well as the edge (patch VII) and the interior (patch VIII) of a birch woodlot. The height of standing vegetation and soil moisture increased in subsequent patches, whereas the light availability at ground level showed inverse tendency. The abundance of Trollius europaeus subpopulations in all studied patches was rather low. In patch I, juvenile individuals dominated, while in other stands - flowering adults prevailed. The lack of temporal variability in the number of basal leaves observed in patches III, IV, V, VI and VII might be due to lack of available area necessary for clonal proliferation of ramets, while the increase of basal leaves number in other sites might suggest unlimited iterative growth. The dimensions of basal leaves in consecutive years were constant in majority of subpopulations, while they showed strong spatial variability increasing gradually from patch I to patch VII and, subsequently, decreasing in patch VIII. The substantial dimensions of basal leaves may enable better light capture in sites with great level of lateral shade, while smaller dimensions in patches located within a woodlot may be due to shade from above created by trees. Lack of temporal variability and presence of substantial spatial variability in the number and height of generative stems, as well as flower production might enhance chances for successful pollination in a competitive environment. Significant changes of follicle number in time and space suggest successful process of pollination in all patches excluding patch VIII. The weak condition of the ramet clusters in patch I is not compensated by considerable seedling recruitment, whereas the satisfactory state of the ramet clusters in patches II-VIII may not suffice for the long-term maintenance of populations in colonized areas.
Andrzej Pacholczak, Karolina Nowakowska, Natalia Mika and Monika Borkowska
rooting in leafy rose stem cuttings and starch dynamics following severance. Acta Hort. 751: 495-502. D irr M.A., 2009. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Stipes Publishing L.L.C., Champaign, France. D obrzański A., A nyszka Z., E lkner K., 2008. Reakcja marchwi na ekstrakty pochodzenia naturalnego z alg z rodzaju Sargassum – AlgaminoPlant i z leonardytu – HumiPlant [Carrot response to natural extracts from Sargassum algae – AlgaminoPlant and from leonardit – HumiPlant]. J. Res. Appl. Agric. Engng. 53: 53-58. D ubois M., G illes K.A., H amilton
Maria Gawęda and Zofia Nizioł-Łukaszewska
atmospheres. Post. Biol. Technol. 41: 181-190. Escalona V.H., Aguayo E., Artes F., 2007 a. Modified atmosphere packaging improved quality of kohlrabi stems. LWT 40: 397-403. Escalona V.H., Aguayo E., Artes F., 2007 b. Quality changes of fresh-cut kohlrabi sticks under modified atmosphere packaging. J. Food Sci. 72: 303-307. Escalona V.H., Aguayo E., Artes F., 2007 c. Extending the shelf life of kohlrabi stems by modified atmosphere packaging. J. Food Sci. 72: 308
. I. 2001. The effect of solar radiation on Dendranthema. Acta Hortic. 559(1): 339-344. Coelho F. F, Deb oni L. & Lope s F. S. 2005. Density-dependent reproductive and vegetative allocation in the aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae). Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4): 369-76. Collins B. & Wein G. 2000. Stem elongation response to neighbour size shade in sprawling and upright Polygonum species. Ann. Bot. 86: 739-744. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbo.2000.1233 Czarnecka B. 2008. Spatiotemporal patterns of genets and ramets in
Morphological variability of the Carex oederi s. l. inflorescence
The most variable features describing Carex oederi s. l. include: (i) the distance between two lower female spikes, (ii) the length of the peduncle of a lower female spike, (iii) the distance between two upper female spikes, (iv) the length of inflorescence and peduncle of a male spike. Most of observed stems had (3)4-5 female spikes, which were crowded around a sessile and short male spike. Specimens with fewer female spikes (2-3) were characterized generally by their loose positioning on a stem (occasionally a lower female spike was distant and had a peduncle) and the presence of usually longer male spikes on a peduncle. In conclusion, C. oederi s. l. is highly variable morphologically. In the investigated materials, there are no apparent discontinuities. Further (planned) biometric research will be extended to the characteristics of the perygynium and vegetative features.
Cao D. Dung, Kevin Seaton and Zora Singh
.E., 1995. Source-sink relationship and Protea postharvest leaf blackening. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 120: 475-480. H e S., J oyce D.C., I rving D.E., 2006. Competition for water between inflorescences and leaves in cut flowering stems of Grevillea ‘Crimson Yul-lo’. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 81: 891-897. J oyce D.C., 1988. Posthavest characteristics of Geraldton wax flowers. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 113: 738-742. J oyce D.C., 1993. Posthavest floral fall in Geraldton wax flower ( Chamelaucium uncinatum Schauer). Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 33: 481
The observations were carried out in the years 2007-2010, in the Molinietum caeruleae meadows with different habitat conditions located in Kraków-Kostrze (southern Poland). The greatest number of seedlings of Trollius europaeus and Iris sibirica was recorded in patches dominated by low-statured species with delicate, procumbent stems or small-tussocks. The diminishing of offspring emergence in places prevailed by large-tussocks grasses, as well as in sites overgrown by willows could be a consequence of poor harvesting practices, as well as the stagnation of water in local depressions. Irrespective of patch charracter, the seedling recruitment did not occur in a fully compact plant canopy, the highest number of offspring was observed in gaps without moss and necromass layers, while the greatest abundance of genets was found in openings left after the removal of bryophytes, litter and above ground parts of plants. The decrease in offspring number noted in gaps resulted from the removal of living and died plants combined with top soil raking, which might caused the partial depletion of soil seed bank reserves. Regardless of the patch type, a significantly higher appearance of seedlings of Trollius europaeus and Iris sibirica was found in the largest gaps than in the smallest ones. In light of the performed studies, it might be concluded that gap creating seems to be a very effective way of active protection of Iris sibirica and Trollius europaeus populations
Katarzyna Buczkowska, Jakub Sawicki, Monika Szczecińska, Stanisław Rosadziński, Mariola Rabska and Alina Bączkiewicz
Two morphologically distinct groups of the Calypogeia fissa complex were found in Europe
Two genetically distinct groups (PS and PB) detected previously within the C. fissa complex in Europe were studied with respect to 47 morphometric characters. The two examined groups differed statistically significantly with respect to 34 morphological traits. The forward stepwise method of discriminant analysis showed that the set of diagnostic characters could be limited to nine. The best diagnostic features were morphological characters describing the shape of leaf: length and width of leaf, height of dorsal part and distance from the apex to the ventral base of the leaf, length of the 3rd coordinate of the leaf, and underleaf width as well as characters of the stem: length of internodes and size of internode cells. Plants of the PS group were smaller (shoot width range from 922-1780 μm) than plants of the PB group (1600-3900 μm). Based on genetically identified samples, classification functions for each group were computed and the derived functions were used for the classification of samples from the herbarium collections. The principal component analysis and dendrogram constructed on the basis of Euclidean distance, using the set of diagnostic characters, divided the examined samples into two groups that correlated with groups detected by isozyme markers. Results of multivariable analysis showed that it is possible to satisfactorily characterise morphologically both genetically distinct groups of the C. fissa complex.