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Sabina Galiniak, Izabela Krawczyk-Merć and Agnieszka Pedrycz

B ibliography 1. Angelos MG, Kaufman DS. Pluripotent stem cell applications for regenerative medicine. Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2015; 20(6):663-70, DOI 10.1097/MOT.0000000000000244. 2. Paździorek PR. Mathematical model of stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration with stochastic noise. Bull Math Biol 2014; 76(7):1642-69, DOI 10.1007/s11538-014-9971-5. 3. Jaenisch R, Young R. Stem cells, the molecular circuitry of pluripotency and nuclear reprogramming. Cell 2008; 13: 567-582, DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.015. 4. Evans MJ, Kaufman

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Mohammed Nader Shalaby, Mohammed Saad, Samy Akar, Mubarak Abdelreda Ali Reda and Ahmed Shalgham

References Amany A, Mohamed S. Effect of concurrent training on CD 34+ /CD 45+ stem cells, VO 2max , certain physical variables and record level of 1500 m running 52 Ischper - SD World congresses, Cairo, Egypt; 2011 Asahara T, Takahashi T, Masuda H, Kalka C, Chen D, Iwaguro H, Inai Y, Silver M, Isner JM. VEGF contributes to postnatal neovascularization by mobilizing bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells. EMBO J , 1999; 18: 3964-3972 Barrett K, Barman S, Boitano S. Ganong Review of Medical

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Szymon Czech, Jacek Hermanson, Piotr Rodak, Tomasz Stołtny, Łukasz Rodak, Sławomir Kasperczyk, Bogdan Koczy and Michał Mielnik

1st Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery who were specialists in the field of trauma and orthopaedics. The R3 acetabular system with Verilast articulation and Nanos hip stem (Smith&Nephew) were used in all patients. All patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were invited for a medical appointment to the hospital outpatient clinic. Among 137 patients who fulfilled criteria, 106 subjects accepted the invitation. During the appointment, the patients underwent routine physical examinations following the Harris Hip Score protocol, responded to the UCLA

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Andrzej Klusiewicz, Lech Borkowski, Dariusz Sitkowski, Krystyna Burkhard-Jagodzińska, Beata Szczepańska and Maria Ładyga


The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of indirect methods of assessment of VO2max for estimation of physical capacity of trained male and female rowers during a training cycle. A group of 8 female and 14 male rowers performed the maximal intensity test simulating the regatta distance (a 2 km test) and a submaximal incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. The suitability of the indirect methods of predicting VO2max during the training cycle was evaluated by performing the tests twice: in females at an interval of five months and in males at an interval of seven months. To indirectly estimate VO2max, regression formulas obtained for the linear relationship between the examined effort indices were utilized based on 1) mean power obtained in the 2 km test, and 2) submaximal exercises after the estimation of PWC170. Although the suitability of the two indirect methods of assessment of VO2max was statisticaly confirmed, their usefulness for estimation of changes in physical fitness of trained rowers during the training cycle was rather low. Such an opinion stems from the fact that the total error of these methods (range between 4.2-7.7% in female and 5.1-7.4% in male rowers) was higher than the real differences in VO2max values determined in direct measurements (between the first and the second examination maximal oxygen uptake rose by 3.0% in female rowers and decreased by 4.3% in male rowers).

Open access

Jerzy Saczuk, Agnieszka Wasiluk, Robert Wilczewski and Adam Wilczewski


Introduction. In the current situation of the demographic decline and simultaneous tough competition on the educational market, the issues of not only teaching levels but also the competences and aptitudes of students themselves are raised more and more often. Therefore, this study sought to analyse differences in the body build and physical fitness of physical education (PE) students from the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biała Podlaska in the years 1989, 2004, and 2014. Material and methods. The material included the results of the anthropometric measurements and physical fitness tests of second-year students examined in 1989 (n = 111), 2004 (n = 181), and 2014 (n = 127). Martin and Saller’s technique was employed to measure anthropometric features necessary to establish body build types using the Heath-Carter method. Physical fitness was evaluated with the International Physical Fitness Test. Sample size (n), arithmetic mean (x̅), standard deviation (SD), and the T point scale were applied to assess the collected variables. Differences in the sizes of the analysed features between the groups were estimated with the use of ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls test. Results. The analysis revealed a constant increase in basic somatic features and endomorphy and a decrease in mesomorphy and physical fitness in male subjects. The ectomorphy of students examined in 2014 was at a level similar to that recorded in 1989. The pace of the described changes was different depending on the study period. Conclusions. Secular trends in body build and physical fitness observed in the study may stem from deterioration in the biological potential of youths or may result from lowering physical education entrance exam criteria at the university.

Open access

Tomasz Michaluk

The Freedom of the Body in the Semiotics and Philosophy of Sport

Purpose. The aim of this paper is to define the meaning of sports world records, which to attain require long years of strenuous training, within the sphere of humanistic and cultural values. The differences between newly placed records and previous scores are usually centimetres or hundredths of a second, which hardly contribute to the spectacularity of a competition. Is therefore setting a record more meaningful as a cultural, not a sports, goal? Methods. A semiotic-pragmatic method was used in this research. The method was founded on C.S. Peirce's semeiotics, which is a sign theory based on the triadic, relational concept of signs. Every sporting event, every individual achievement of an athlete is a sign, which acquires meaning due to its interpretation and being part of the so-called process of semiosis. Results. The popularity and cultural meaning of particular sports does not result from the immanent features of a sporting competition, such as its aesthetic merits or the dynamics of the game. The differences in times of the best runners in a prestigious 100 metre race are unperceivable to the human eye. The attraction stems from cultural factors, which are meaningful in the sphere of values of a given culture. One of such values in which sport relates to it is freedom. Conclusions. Striving for records, even at the cost of one's health, has (for the sports described in the article as contesting) a motivation in the cultural (philosophical) meaning of overcoming the limits of the human body's physical abilities. Every record set means that those limits have not yet been reached and therefore are still unknown. This spiritual freedom is accompanied by the equally vital, as confirmed by records, sense of physical unlimitedness.

Open access

Igor Cieśliński and Ireneusz Chaliburda


Introduction. Physical education programmes are primarily based upon sports that originated in the Western European tradition. Implementing indigenous traditions such as traditional Polish games and play is an excellent opportunity to make those programmes more modern and attractive. In order to make use of the value and potential of these activities, it is necessary to introduce them into the programmes of Polish schools. This study sought to show the chances of traditional Polish forms of activity becoming a permanent part of physical education lessons and make present and future PE teachers aware of the fact that such forms of activity exist. Material and methods. The study included 125 PE teachers (62 females and 63 males) from randomly selected schools in eastern Poland. It was carried out with the use of a diagnostic survey, which included an original questionnaire designed by the author consisting of questions regarding the subjects’ knowledge of traditional Polish games and play, their place and role in national culture, as well as the possibility of using them in physical education. Correspondence analysis was employed to examine the data. Results. The research revealed that the participants of the study were relatively poorly prepared to be promoters and continuers of traditional Polish games, play, and sports. This mainly stemmed from the fact that they were hardly aware of the role of those forms of activities in the process of physical education and had little knowledge of traditional forms of physical activity that originate in indigenous culture. Conclusions. The teachers examined are insufficiently prepared to introduce traditional Polish games, play, and sports into the process of physical education. It is necessary to broaden the programme and educational offerings in the field of national heritage regarding traditional forms of physical activity that come from national cultures.

Open access

Jerzy Kosiewicz

Foul Play in Sport as a Phenomenon Inconsistent with the Rules, yet Acceptable and Desirable

Author considers assumptions related to foul play in sport as a phenomenon, that affect the body, psyche, or relationships - various social involvements, conditionings, and determinants of those involved with that particular form of athletic activity. This includes fouls committed on and off the field, as well as those not even related to a particular game. Our considerations include fouls of a verbal or acoustic nature; fouls in the form of printed materials; those in the form of visual commentary in films, TV shows, Internet appearances, whether in feature films, dramatized documentaries, documentaries or reports presented in a different publications, festivals, exhibitions, during which co-participants, adversaries or competitors make comments on past or future events during or beyond the competition.

Fouls in sport, particularly those committed by athletes during competition, will always be inconsistent with the accepted rules of the game, that is, with the official regulations. Fouls will also always influence - in more or less annoying, depressing, painful or even tragic ways - the fate and the health of athletes.

No logical - conditional, cause and effect - connection exists between a foul and the rules. Neither the need for nor praise of foul play can stem from the regulations. Yet people directly associated with the sport tolerate it because there is a widespread, quiet acquiescence of such play. Foul play is strongly opposed by supporters of the fair play principle, by those who do not regard sports competition as a phenomenon that can be considered independently beyond moral good and evil.

Foul play is seen also as a desirable phenomenon, when inter alia, regardless of the various penalties imposed on players and team, it helps - in the final balance of losses and benefits - to achieve the planned success. Moreover, it is worth adding that, for instance, the so-called "good foul" in basketball enables one to stop the game clock, the so-called pure-play time of the referee. This creates the possibility of obtaining at least one more point (for a possible 3-point shot from a distance) than the team that executes its two one-point penalty shots granted for the offense (that is, "good foul").

Foul play may also enhance the course of the sports spectacle, and encourage spectators to cheer more frequently. This is particularly important when professional athletic contests are treated as a form of business. The dramatization of foul play as a creation of "game" within a game can also be an additional attraction of the competition; foul play might be used as sophisticated and spectacular trickery, that dismays and hurts in its pragmatic-aesthetic construction, both the referee and the opponent.

Foul play in sports has so many forms and will probably never lose its popular and sometimes spectacular character. Knowing that, everything should be done to protect players from bothersome health, interpersonal, and cultural disablements resulting from foul play.

Open access

Teresa Zwierko, Wieslaw Osinski, Wojciech Lubinski, Damian Czepita and Beata Florkiewicz

References Allison T., Wood C. C., Goff W. R. Brain stem auditory, pattern-reversal visual, and short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials: latencies in relation to age, sex, and brain and body size. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol , 1983. 55: 619-36 Ando S., Kida N., Oda S. Central and peripheral visual reaction time of soccer players and nonathletes. Percept Mot Skills , 2001. 92 (3): 786-794 Bhanot J. L., Sindu L. S. Comparative study of reaction time in Indian

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Oghenetejiri Digun-Aweto, Ogbanero Pipy Fawole and Ibukun Augustine Ayodele

management of Marsabit National Reserve, Kenya. Journal of Human Ecology , 30 (1), 55-62. Stem, C. J., Lassoie, J. P., Lee, D. R., Deshler, D. D., & Schelhas, J. W. (2003). Community participation in ecotourism benefits: The link to conservation practices and perspectives. Society & Natural Resources , 16(5), 387-413. DOI: 10.1080/08941920309177 Tomićević, J., Shannon, M. A., & Milovanović, M. (2010). Socio-economic impacts on the attitudes towards conservation of natural resources: case study from Serbia. Forest Policy and Economics , 12 (3), 157-162. DOI