Gabriel Estrada, Maurice Dawson and Jose Antonio Cárdenas-Haro
African Americans and Hispanic Americans historically have been underrepresented in U.S. jobs in the fields of STEM in large part because of the usability of technology. In this research, the goal was to discover the usability factors relative to operating systems that may limit African Americans and Hispanic Americans from pursuit of computer science higher education. For the purpose of this study, “usability” refers to the “appropriateness of purpose.” Categorized by three factors, appropriateness of purpose can be defined as (i) the effectiveness of the users’ ability to complete tasks while using technology and the quality or output of those tasks, (ii) the efficiency and the level of resources used in performing tasks, and (iii) the satisfaction or users’ reaction to the use of technology (Brooke, 2014). This research examined quantitative analysis based on students’ routine computer task knowledge using a survey questionnaire and the SUS. The population included high school students responding to questions on common tasks and usability. A web survey was conducted to assess the measurement and understanding pattern demonstrated by the participants. The quantitative analysis of the computer usability included ANOVA, independent t-tests and orthogonal contrasts. The analysis of the SUS measured usability and learnability. The results of the data analysis showed that the combined African American and Hispanic group has a mean computer usability score that is significantly lower when compared with the other ethnicities and the SUS findings included the highest gap among this most underrepresented group in the STEM field.
The issues presented in this publication are situated within the framework of qualitative research. The research concerns negative aspects stemming from not experiencing motherhood present in the narrative of women aged 35-42 years old. The aim of the research is identifying the disadvantages of childlessness as perceived by mature women. The research was performed on 38 women. The criterion of the research sample selection, apart from age, was being unmarried (a woman’s marital status was “unmarried”, “divorced” or “widow”; women in cohabitational relationships were not excluded) and childless.
The surveyed women were therefore asked the question: Do you notice some losses resulting from not functioning in the role of a mother? On the basis of central topics, i.e. topics that prevailed in the interviews, 5 response categories were determined: discrimination in the workplace, social stigma, discrimination in public space, not following the road leading to happiness and fulfilment, and loneliness in old age.
This study aims to enhance our understanding of how mothers of first graders cope with the perceived reading difficulties of their children. Their different perceptions stem from the reading aspirations the mothers have for their children. The study uses data obtained from in-depth semi-structured interviews with 10 mothers, conducted at the end of the second half of the 2015/2016 school year. The data analysis revealed that the differences in the mothers’ perceptions of their children’s reading difficulties are reflected in a wide variety of micro-actions aimed at solving them. Three different approaches can be identified: a) inspector mothers, who are most concerned about their child’s reading errors and their primary focus is on operationally correcting these errors; b) promoter mothers, who are primarily worried about their child’s potential or existing lack of interest in reading and who manage all reading activities so as to motivate the child (or prevent demotivation), e.g., through turn-taking in reading or in ensuring a regular supply of books; c) educator mothers, who fear most that their child will not understand the text and who show willingness and enthusiasm in explaining and creating various opportunities for reading literacy development, both as part of homework activities and leisure reading. They also engage in holistic attempts to prevent reading failures, and motivate their children to read through the act of reading. The conclusions of the study are explained in the context of self-determination theory and a discussion of the impact of parents’ socioeconomic status on their involvement or engagement in their children’s education.
Jiří Hrbáček, Martin Kučera, Zdeněk Hodis and Martin Dosedla
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