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Norbert Maliszewski, Anna O. Kuźmińska, Grażyna Wieczorkowska-Wierzbińska and Anna Werner-Maliszewska

Abstract

The aim of three studies was to examine the differences between business majors and non-business majors, in their level of implicit (measured by an Implicit Association Test [IAT], Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998) and explicit power motivation (measured by Power Motivation and Helping Power Motivation scales, Frieze & Boneva, 2001).It was predicted that there are no differences between these two groups in the general (implicit) level of power motivation, but that differences exist in the way it is explicitly expressed: through desire for leadership and prominence vs. desire for helping. Results of Study 1 indicated that business majors (management, N=79) declared a higher leadership motive and a lower helping motive than non-business majors (history, psychology, linguistics, N=62).Study 2 addressed question whether the above differences in power motivation stem from socialization at the university level or from pre-selection. The relationship between high school students’ (N=134) academic major preferences and their power motivation was tested. It was found that the more they were business-oriented, the higher their scores were on leadership, and lower on helping scales. In Study 3, business majors (economics, N=75) and non-business majors (psychology, N=82) completed the same questionnaire as participants in previous studies, as well as performed the IAT. Non-business majors declared stronger explicit helping motive, while business majors expressed stronger prominence and leadership motives. Furthermore, for non-business majors, IAT results could be predicted by their helping score. Implications and possible limitations of the presented results are discussed.

Open access

Michał Ziarko, Agnieszka Rosińska and Michał Sieński

Abstract

Background - Early adulthood is the developmental stage during which, for the first time, an individual can independently choose their own lifestyle. For the future health of a young adult, it is important that they incorporate healthy behaviors from different health dimensions (somatic, mental, social) into their lifestyle. Analyzing the foregoing issue gives rise to a fundamental question: did intensive social changes experienced after Poland’s accession to the European Union lead to changes in different aspects of a healthy lifestyle? Method - The presented study involved 504 people. The research data was collected in two separate measurements in 2003 (n = 284) and 2013 (n = 220). Subjects were asked to complete sets of questionnaires which measured: health behaviors, health beliefs, social influence, intention. Results - Statistical comparison of means tests and regression equations were conducted. Results demonstrate that young adults were similarly engaged in pro-health activities in both 2003 and 2013. A detailed analysis of health lifestyle factors shows that young adults from the 2013 group care more about their diet, physical activity, and more frequently undergo preventive medical health examinations. Moreover, significant changes in healthy lifestyle factors were reported. The most important observation concerned the changes in health beliefs. Beliefs derived from a holistic-functional model of health played a major role in the 2003 group, whereas in the 2013 group beliefs close to the biomedical model of health were more important. Conclusions - Analyses demonstrate changes in detailed healthy lifestyle factors. At the same time, no significant differences in global measures of concern for one’s health were observed. Importantly, results show modifications in healthy lifestyle factors. It is suggested that the observed differences stem from the social change of the last decade.

Open access

Helena Wrona-Polańska

: Wydawnictwo PWN. Heszen, I., Sęk, H. (2007). Psychologia zdrowia [Health Psychology]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo PWN. Hobfoll, S.E. (1989). Conservation of resources. A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist 3, 513-524. Hołowiecki, J. (2006). Przeszczepianie szpiku i komórek krwiotwórczych z krwi obwodowej w nowotworach [Bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in neoplasms]. In: M. Krzakowski (Ed.) Onkologia kliniczna, [Clinical oncology], Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Medyczne BORGIS

Open access

Bogusława Błoch and Katarzyna Serafińska

. Deaux, K., Major, B. (1987). Putting Gender into Context: An Interactive Model of Gender-Related Behavior. Psychological Review, 94 , 2, 369-389. Eagly, A., Steffen, V. J. (1984). Gender Stereotypes Stem From the Distribution of Women and Men Into Social Roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46 , 735-754. Foucault, M. (2000). Historia seksualności (History of Sexuality) . Warszawa: Czytelnik. Hyde, J. S. (1981). How large are cognitive gender differences? A metaanalisis

Open access

Miguel Lázaro, Víctor Illera and Javier Sainz

Abstract

Whether morphological processing of complex words occurs beyond orthographic processing is a matter of intense debate. In this study, morphological processing is examined by presenting complex words (brujería -> brujo –witchcraft -> witch), as well as simple (brujaña->brujo) and complex pseudowords (brujanza ->brujo), as primes in three masked lexical decision tasks. In the first experiment, the three experimental conditions facilitated word recognition in comparison to the control condition, but no differences emerged between them. Given the importance of the surface frequency effect observed, a second experiment was conducted. The results fully replicate those observed in the first one, but this time with low frequency targets. In the third experiment, vowels were removed from the stems of primes to reduce the orthographic overlap between primes and targets and, therefore, the influence of the embedded stem effect. The results show facilitative effects only for complex words. However, paired comparisons show no differences between experimental conditions. The overall results show the central role played by the processing of stems in visual word recognition and are explained in terms of current models of morphological processing.

Open access

Daniel Spears, Inés Fernández-Linsenbarth, Yasmina Okan, María Ruz and Felisa González

Abstract

Previous research suggests that utilitarian decisions to moral dilemmas often stem from analytic, controlled cognitive processes. Furthermore, processing disfluency can trigger analytic thinking and improve performance on tasks that require logic and cognitive reflection. In the present study we investigated how processing fluency affects the readiness with which people give utilitarian responses to both personal and impersonal dilemmas. Participants were presented in two different experimental blocks with dilemmas written in both easy- (fluent) and hard-to-read (disfluent) fonts. We expected that dilemmas written in a disfluent font would be associated with more utilitarian responses. Results supported this prediction, albeit only when the disfluent dilemmas appeared first, showing that participants endorsed more utilitarian actions in the disfluent condition than in the fluent condition across dilemma types. These data suggest that increasing processing disfluency by manipulating the font affects decisions in the moral domain.

Open access

Fatima Hossain and Nuno Ferreira

session may be of use, including both youth and their parents, if the source of negativity is the parents, with a goal to resolve differences and achieve mutual understanding of emotions, needs, and expectations. It is also important that alongside identifying positive resources for youth to lean on, they also learn positive coping mechanisms to deal with difficult situations, with the loss of friends as a result of coming out, and to handle other negative peer feedbacks. Moreover, if the negative social relationships stem more from peers, it is suggested that gay and