do not necessarily accurately reflect public interests and participants do not necessarily play influential roles’. The basic dilemma stems from the perpetual tension between the need for effective governance and the need for maximum accountability. While the former invokes centralist tendencies in government, the latter demands greater decentralization. Fundamentally, as we shall see in the present research, the degree of participation open to citizens varies with local context.
As E. Conrad et al. (2011 : 761) have noted ‘whilst public participation is now
of current changes in the social dwelling allocation procedure has been closely examined by I. Cole, B. Iqbal, L. Slocombe and T. Trott (2001) . An innovative solution to the problem of social housing allocation, a sort of breakthrough solution, is the so-called Delft system, applied in most Dutch municipalities. The name of the system stems from the Dutch city of Delft, where the system was put into practice for the first time at the beginning of the 90s. At the end of the 90s it was also implemented in Great Britain in the form of allocation that takes into
recurring mistakes, which often thwart attempts at their solution. The most important challenges relating to the suburbanisation process in the Poznań Conurbation in recent years have included the reduction of the degradation of the suburban landscape (such landscape often consists of complexes of chaotic developments with irrational functional structure); the restoration of due value to public spaces; the reconstruction of social relationships and natural structures; and the alleviation of the congestion on the roads ( Bonenberg 2011 : 11). An important issue that stems
identity of a place is expressed in phrases such as: “a beloved place”, “oh, great! – How typically Krakovian” or “I am from here”. The anti - identity of a place stems, above all, from the feeling of weakening, or even breaking the traditional attitudes of identification with the private homeland. When identification with a place is weak or negative, then the social or personal dimension is blurred (or unconscious), and the city is not considered significant in any of them.
The personal identity of a place requires a person’s openness, it is unstable and
social fields. However, there are also opinions that the French presence in this country was limited to a narrow strip of the Mediterranean coastline, including particularly the city of Algiers ( Jordi 1998 : 29). Such arguments stemmed from the aftermath of urban and architectural revolutions, which had a major impact on the French Algeria’s capital. The city that used to be an example of a typical urban centre of the Islamic world was transformed into a truly modern European metropolis ( Miège, 1985 , p. 171). For the French, Algiers became something of an archetype
investors. The case study analysed is regarded as ‘the most evident example of transformations of post–industrial brownfields by cultural institutions’ ( Orzechowska-Wacławska 2017 : 184), and provokes contradictory opinions both from scholars and the wider public (c.f. Strefa Kultury 2015 , Nawrocki 2015 , Orzechowska-Wacławska 2017 ). The analyses of the phenomenon of the Katowice Culture Zone published to date have a certain weakness, which in our opinion stems from comparing the project with Abandoibarra in Bilbao. Meanwhile, the reconstruction of the history of
pollution (5.4%–7%) and industrial pollution (1.8%–9%) were the remaining but no less important causes. The sources of air pollution of B(a)P were similar. In the years 2007-2012, air pollution of that substance stemmed from emissions from heating boilers in private households (45.8% out of all incidents of contravention of an acceptable level of pollution in 2007, 69% in 2008, 90.4% in 2009, 96% in 2010, 94.1% in 2011, and 96% in 2012)” ( Najwyższa Izba Kontroli 2014 : 22).
Other causes of smog are:
poor quality of heating fuels