Important as they are in people’s mental and intellectual development and in their appreciation of the things around them, the Humanities remain a field that is, more often than not, frowned upon among people who firmly believe that the STEM fields are much more important, practical, and lucrative in a rapidly growing and competitive workplace. Besides, when scientific and technological breakthroughs have invaded every nook and cranny of our lives, the incessant comparison between science and the arts does not, and actually should not strike us as new or even shocking. The present paper seeks to revisit the status of the Humanities nowadays, by shedding light on the crisis befalling this field (inter)nationally. The paper also aims at providing a reappraisal of the moment of poetry—one that substantiates Poet Meena Alexander’s famous line, “We have poetry / So we do not die of history.” This is achieved through readings of Sylvia Plath’s so-called hospital poems that highlight the deft interplay between poetry, science and ideology.
AIMS - The article outlines the historical development of prison drug treatment (PDT) in Denmark in order to understand the present situation where PDT is viewed as a natural benign practice. We also identify the different rationales within the political debate on PDT since its rapid expansion in 2000. DATA - Historical and policy documents, grey literature, interviews with key informants in the field. RESULTS - Four historical periods are identified, from a period when drug treatment was unwelcome in prisons to a re-emergence of the rehabilitation ideal over the last 15 years, when PDT appears unquestioned and its popularity has exploded. Five dissimilar and at times conflicting rationales have been present in the political debate legitimising this policy shift.
CONCLUSION - Part of the popularity of PDT stems from the fact that it has been used in political debates in order to justify a range of different and even conflicting objectives. With changing penal discourse, PDT may again become unwanted in prison settings.
Ana Maria D. Preoteasa, Rebekka Sieber, Monica Budowski and Christian Suter
This paper presents the results of a qualitative comparative study that looked at the meaning of ‘precarious work’ in households situated in the position of ‘precarious prosperity’ in Switzerland and Romania in 2013. The aim of this research is to explore the experiences of individuals with precarious work and to embed them into their household and national structural contexts. Employment patterns in the two countries are similar in terms of uncertainty and instability, yet vary in many other aspects. While in Romania insecurity is due mainly to the very low incomes, in Switzerland it stems from nonstandard contracts. The research shows that for households of precarious prosperity, precarious work is both a strategy to cope with uncertainty and instability and a circumstance leading to precariousness. The analysis explores qualitatively the meaning that individuals living in households of precarious prosperity attribute to their employment situation as contextualized by the interplay between household and individual situation.
The use of unmanned aerial vehicles or “drones,” as part of the United States’ (US) targeted killing (TK) program dramatically increased after the War on Terror (WoT) was declared. With the ambiguous nature and parameters of the WoT, and stemming from the postulation of numerous low-level, niche-, and other securitizations producing a monolithic threat, US drone operations now constitute a vital stitch in the extensive fabric of US counterterrorism policy. This article employs the theories of securitization and macrosecuritization as discussed by Buzan (1991, 2006), and Buzan and Wæver (2009) to understand targeted killing, by means of weaponized drones, as an extraordinary measure according to the Copenhagen School’s interpretation. An overarching securitization and the use of the “security” label warrants the emergency action of targeted killing through the use of drones as an extraordinary measure. We argue that the WoT serves as a means of securitizing global terrorism as a threat significant enough to warrant the use of drone warfare as an extraordinary use of force. By accepting the WoT as a securitization process we can reasonably accept that the US’ response(s) against that threat are also securitized and therefore become extraordinary measures.
Janne Scheffels, Inger Synnøve Moan and Elisabet Storvoll
INTRODUCTION - Parents are often warned about the negative consequences of drinking alcohol in the presence of their children, while surveys indicate that children fairly often see their parents drink and also being drunk. We applied a mixed method approach to explore attitudes towards parents’ drinking in the presence of their children, using (1) survey and (2) focus group data. In the analysis of the focus group data, we also addressed which consequences of parents’ drinking the participants emphasised, and how they reasoned for their opinions. The results were merged in order to compare, contrast and synthesise the findings from both data sets. METHODS - The data stem from a web survey among 18-69-year-old Norwegians (Study 1, N=2171) and from focus group interviews with 15-16-year-olds and parents of teenagers (Study 2, 8 groups, N=42). RESULTS - In both data sets, drinking moderately in the presence of children was mostly accepted, but attitudes became more restrictive with an increased drinking frequency and with visible signs of intoxication. The results from Study 2 showed also that definitions of moderation varied and that the participants used contextual factors such as atmosphere and occasion to define when drinking was acceptable and when it was not. In reflections on the importance of moderation, they emphasised parental responsibility for the family as a unit and parents’ immoderate drinking as posing a risk to children’s safety. The participants also underlined the importance of parental drinking in the alcohol socialisation process. CONCLUSION - Parents’ drinking in the presence of children was generally accepted as long as the drinking was moderate. The focus group data showed that definitions of moderation varied, and that social context also was used to define moderation.
The purpose of the article is to analyze the social situation of the Roma and poverty more broadly, to highlight the factors underpinning their lack of access to education and hence to jobs from which they derive income insecurity and worsen their living conditions, their poor health and finally, their poor contact with the majority. Theme of Roma poverty and their general social situation is very demanding in terms of finding the solution, since the large rate of Roma population is unable to even minimally participate in social, economic, cultural and political life. I have picked a combined survey interview as a method for the empirical part of the article, by looking at various projects and literature. Scientific objectives of the article is to highlight the fact that in all areas affecting the way of life of Roma, including their discriminiation, the most influental one is the long-term segregation of the learning process, which is essential to their integration into an active lifestyle. I refer to the fact that the condition of education of Roma children depends mainly on the socio-economic enviroment from which they come from and which can be measured by various factors. As on of the factors in the education of the parents alone, other factors could be household equipment, monitoring the overall social, economic and cultural status of Roma pupils. In the conclusion of the article, I want to point out that a large number of research findings demonstrate that the dependence of education outcomes as students from their socio-economic enviroment suggests that the education system is no way meeting the requirements of a fair transfer of learning to all, according to their abilities and is just never obilizing the social equality in education. The Education Act and the related rules do not contain provisions that are aimed directly at Roma pupils. However, the general term "socially disadvantaged" enviroment is being used, that is defined primarly by poverty. However, many disadvantages faced by the Roa in all areas of life, often are not only subject to their financial circumstances.
"Given that some portion of barriers stem from the approach of the majority population towards the Roma on the basis of their declared or credited ehtnicity, it is questionable whether the measures are based on the financial circumstances of families enough." (Draft concept of education of Roma children and pupils, including the development secondary and higher education, 2009, p.1).
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Minority Voices in the Memorial Messages after the Terror Attacks in Norway 2011
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Images and experiences of German speaking au pairs in the United States
take part in the American au pair programme ( Geserick 2012 ). They were rather precise in describing the images they have of the United States, most of them stemming from the American TV shows and movies. They wanted to experience what they had seen in these images, or test if they proved true in reality: Luci 2 All names are pseudonyms chosen by the interviewees themselves. ‘always wanted to once see America’ because ‘it is simply the dream of so many things’. Emma wanted to ‘discover this vastness of land’, and Carmen wanted to know ‘whether there really is a