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Open access

Ikram Hili

Abstract

Important as they are in people’s mental and intellectual development and in their appreciation of the things around them, the Humanities remain a field that is, more often than not, frowned upon among people who firmly believe that the STEM fields are much more important, practical, and lucrative in a rapidly growing and competitive workplace. Besides, when scientific and technological breakthroughs have invaded every nook and cranny of our lives, the incessant comparison between science and the arts does not, and actually should not strike us as new or even shocking. The present paper seeks to revisit the status of the Humanities nowadays, by shedding light on the crisis befalling this field (inter)nationally. The paper also aims at providing a reappraisal of the moment of poetry—one that substantiates Poet Meena Alexander’s famous line, “We have poetry / So we do not die of history.” This is achieved through readings of Sylvia Plath’s so-called hospital poems that highlight the deft interplay between poetry, science and ideology.

Open access

Attila Imre

Abstract

The article aims at a logical approach to discussing must, organized around the core meaning of necessity, split into epistemic (logical necessity) and deontic necessity (obligation). After discussing must as a central modal auxiliary, we present various meanings of must, relying on authoritative sources published for international (English), Hungarian, and Romanian students. Possible issues of teaching must are also dealt with, supported by data from a popular TV series containing modal verbs. The conclusion discusses the importance and relativity of a number of occurrences, trying to offer a possible teaching option for modals stemming from practice.

Open access

Ana Maria D. Preoteasa, Rebekka Sieber, Monica Budowski and Christian Suter

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a qualitative comparative study that looked at the meaning of ‘precarious work’ in households situated in the position of ‘precarious prosperity’ in Switzerland and Romania in 2013. The aim of this research is to explore the experiences of individuals with precarious work and to embed them into their household and national structural contexts. Employment patterns in the two countries are similar in terms of uncertainty and instability, yet vary in many other aspects. While in Romania insecurity is due mainly to the very low incomes, in Switzerland it stems from nonstandard contracts. The research shows that for households of precarious prosperity, precarious work is both a strategy to cope with uncertainty and instability and a circumstance leading to precariousness. The analysis explores qualitatively the meaning that individuals living in households of precarious prosperity attribute to their employment situation as contextualized by the interplay between household and individual situation.

Open access

Torsten Kolind, Vibeke Asmussen Frank, Hellevibeke Dahl and Mie Birk Haller

ABSTRACT

AIMS - The article outlines the historical development of prison drug treatment (PDT) in Denmark in order to understand the present situation where PDT is viewed as a natural benign practice. We also identify the different rationales within the political debate on PDT since its rapid expansion in 2000. DATA - Historical and policy documents, grey literature, interviews with key informants in the field. RESULTS - Four historical periods are identified, from a period when drug treatment was unwelcome in prisons to a re-emergence of the rehabilitation ideal over the last 15 years, when PDT appears unquestioned and its popularity has exploded. Five dissimilar and at times conflicting rationales have been present in the political debate legitimising this policy shift.

CONCLUSION - Part of the popularity of PDT stems from the fact that it has been used in political debates in order to justify a range of different and even conflicting objectives. With changing penal discourse, PDT may again become unwanted in prison settings.

Open access

Attila Imre

Abstract

The article aims at a logical approach to discussing can, could, and be able to, organized around core meanings such as possibility, ability, and permission. We argue that the concept of “remoteness” proposed by Lewis in 1986 may simplify enough the explanation regarding the relationship between can and could, and their presentation relies on authoritative sources published for international (English), Hungarian, and Romanian students. The conclusion discusses both the importance and relativity of a number of occurrences (depending on different text types), trying to offer a possible teaching option for modals stemming from practice. The article is connected to the international conference in Miercurea Ciuc, entitled Idegen - Străinul - Stranger, focusing on English as a foreign language through the eyes of non-native speakers.

Open access

Scott Nicholas Romaniuk and Stewart Tristan Webb

Abstract

The use of unmanned aerial vehicles or “drones,” as part of the United States’ (US) targeted killing (TK) program dramatically increased after the War on Terror (WoT) was declared. With the ambiguous nature and parameters of the WoT, and stemming from the postulation of numerous low-level, niche-, and other securitizations producing a monolithic threat, US drone operations now constitute a vital stitch in the extensive fabric of US counterterrorism policy. This article employs the theories of securitization and macrosecuritization as discussed by Buzan (1991, 2006), and Buzan and Wæver (2009) to understand targeted killing, by means of weaponized drones, as an extraordinary measure according to the Copenhagen School’s interpretation. An overarching securitization and the use of the “security” label warrants the emergency action of targeted killing through the use of drones as an extraordinary measure. We argue that the WoT serves as a means of securitizing global terrorism as a threat significant enough to warrant the use of drone warfare as an extraordinary use of force. By accepting the WoT as a securitization process we can reasonably accept that the US’ response(s) against that threat are also securitized and therefore become extraordinary measures.

Open access

Janne Scheffels, Inger Synnøve Moan and Elisabet Storvoll

Abstract

INTRODUCTION - Parents are often warned about the negative consequences of drinking alcohol in the presence of their children, while surveys indicate that children fairly often see their parents drink and also being drunk. We applied a mixed method approach to explore attitudes towards parents’ drinking in the presence of their children, using (1) survey and (2) focus group data. In the analysis of the focus group data, we also addressed which consequences of parents’ drinking the participants emphasised, and how they reasoned for their opinions. The results were merged in order to compare, contrast and synthesise the findings from both data sets. METHODS - The data stem from a web survey among 18-69-year-old Norwegians (Study 1, N=2171) and from focus group interviews with 15-16-year-olds and parents of teenagers (Study 2, 8 groups, N=42). RESULTS - In both data sets, drinking moderately in the presence of children was mostly accepted, but attitudes became more restrictive with an increased drinking frequency and with visible signs of intoxication. The results from Study 2 showed also that definitions of moderation varied and that the participants used contextual factors such as atmosphere and occasion to define when drinking was acceptable and when it was not. In reflections on the importance of moderation, they emphasised parental responsibility for the family as a unit and parents’ immoderate drinking as posing a risk to children’s safety. The participants also underlined the importance of parental drinking in the alcohol socialisation process. CONCLUSION - Parents’ drinking in the presence of children was generally accepted as long as the drinking was moderate. The focus group data showed that definitions of moderation varied, and that social context also was used to define moderation.

Open access

Lenka Kováčová

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to analyze the social situation of the Roma and poverty more broadly, to highlight the factors underpinning their lack of access to education and hence to jobs from which they derive income insecurity and worsen their living conditions, their poor health and finally, their poor contact with the majority. Theme of Roma poverty and their general social situation is very demanding in terms of finding the solution, since the large rate of Roma population is unable to even minimally participate in social, economic, cultural and political life. I have picked a combined survey interview as a method for the empirical part of the article, by looking at various projects and literature. Scientific objectives of the article is to highlight the fact that in all areas affecting the way of life of Roma, including their discriminiation, the most influental one is the long-term segregation of the learning process, which is essential to their integration into an active lifestyle. I refer to the fact that the condition of education of Roma children depends mainly on the socio-economic enviroment from which they come from and which can be measured by various factors. As on of the factors in the education of the parents alone, other factors could be household equipment, monitoring the overall social, economic and cultural status of Roma pupils. In the conclusion of the article, I want to point out that a large number of research findings demonstrate that the dependence of education outcomes as students from their socio-economic enviroment suggests that the education system is no way meeting the requirements of a fair transfer of learning to all, according to their abilities and is just never obilizing the social equality in education. The Education Act and the related rules do not contain provisions that are aimed directly at Roma pupils. However, the general term "socially disadvantaged" enviroment is being used, that is defined primarly by poverty. However, many disadvantages faced by the Roa in all areas of life, often are not only subject to their financial circumstances.

"Given that some portion of barriers stem from the approach of the majority population towards the Roma on the basis of their declared or credited ehtnicity, it is questionable whether the measures are based on the financial circumstances of families enough." (Draft concept of education of Roma children and pupils, including the development secondary and higher education, 2009, p.1).

Open access

Ann-Dorte Christensen and Sune Jensen

. Castells, M 1998, The information age: economy, society and culture, Vol. II: The Power of Identity, Blackwell, Cambridge. Christensen, A-D 2009, ‘Belonging and unbelonging in an intersectional perspective’, Gender, Technology & Development, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 21-41. Christensen, A-D & Jensen, SQ 2011a, Stemmer fra en bydel - tilhørsforhold og identiteter i Aalborg Øst. Aalborg Universitetsforlag, Aalborg (forthcoming). Christensen, A-D & Jensen, SQ 2011b, ‘Intersektionalitet og kvalitativ

Open access

“It’s Difficult to be a Norwegian”:

Minority Voices in the Memorial Messages after the Terror Attacks in Norway 2011

Hans Lödén

References Andersson, M, Jacobsen, CM, Rogstad, J & Vestel, V 2012, Kritiske hendelser – nye stemmer. Politisk engasjement og transnasjonal orientering i det nye Norge , Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. Archive Register 2012, Arkiv S-6313, Memorial material from 22.07.2011, Riksarkivet [National Archives], Oslo. Asad, T 2003, Formations of the secular: Christianity, Islam, modernity , Stanford University Press, Stanford. Bangstad, S 2014, Anders Breivik and the rise of islamophobia , Zed Books, London. Bergström, G & Boréus, K 2000