References 1. Parolini O, De D, Rodrigues MF, and Caruso M Placental Stem/Progenitor Cells: Isolation and Characterization, in Perinatal Stem Cells, A. Atala and S.V. Murphy, Editors. 2014, Springer Science: New York. p.373. 2. Debashree D, Kmiecik G, Cargnoni A, and Parolini O Placenta-Derived Cells and Their Therapeutic Applications, in Gene and Cell Therapy: Therapeutic Mechanisms and Strategies, N.S. Templeton, Editor. 2015, CRC Press. 3. Parolini O and Soncini M Placenta as a Source of Stem Cells and as a
Antonietta R. Silini and Ornella Parolini
References 1. Dennie D, Louboutin JP, Strayer DS Migration of bone marrow progenitor cells in the adult brain of rats and rabbits. // World J. Stem Cells. 8(4):136-5, 2016. 2. Chung TN, Kim JH, Choi BY, Chung SP, Kwon SW, Suh SW. Adipose- derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce neuronal death after transient global cerebral ischemia through prevention of blood-brain barrier disruption and endothelial damage. // Stem Cells Transl Med. 4(2):178-85, 2015. 3. Wei ZZ, Gu X, Ferdinand A, Lee JH, Ji X, Ji XM, Yu SP, Wei
Tomasz Śliwa, Maciej Jarzębski and Kosma Szutkowski
-Prieto R., Rodríguez-Gil A., Berdùn-Àlvarez T., Cebolla A., Chávez S., Flores-Mosquera M., (2006) Straightforward production of encoded microbeads by Flow Focusing: Potential applications for biomolecule detection, International Journal of Pharmaceutics , 324 , 19-26. Gennet N., Alexander L. M., Sánchez-Martín R. M., Behrendt J. M., Sutherland A. J., Brickman J. M., Bradley M. & Li M (2009) Microspheres as a vehicle for biomolecule delivery to neural stem cells, New Biotechnology , 25 (6), 442-449. Jakubowicz J. (2008) Particle analysis and properties of
Danuta Packa, Marian Wiwart, Elżbieta Suchowilska and Teresa Bieńkowska
breeding programmes. Plant Breeding, 123, 349-354. Keller M., Karutz Ch., Schmid J. E., Stamp P., Winzeler M., Keller B., and Messmer M. M., 1999. Quantitative trait loci for lodging resistance in a segregating wheat × spelt population. Theoretical Applied Genetics, 98, 1171-1182. Khanna V.K., 1991. Relationship of lodging resistance and yield to anatomical characters of stem in wheat, triticale and rye. Wheat Information Service, 73, 19-24. Kong E., Liu D., Guo X., Yang W., Sun J., Li X., Zhan K., Cui D., Lin J., and Zhang
Dmitry Galinousky and Tsimafei Padvitski
In this work, we attempted to elucidate mechanisms of flax fiber biogenesis by measuring, using qPCR, expression of the cellwall related genes (cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like and chitinase-like genes) in stems of two contrasting fiber quality subspecies of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). We studied elongatum Vav. et Ell. (cultivar Blakit, Belarus) and crepitans Boenn. (dehiscent flax) subspecies, which are differed in the height of plants, width of stems etc. Amongst all measured genes chitinase- like Ctl19 and Ctl21 genes showed drastic difference in expression between stems of the two flax varieties, showing higher expression level in the fiber flax versus the dehiscent flax. In contrast, cellulose synthase-like CslG4 gene had lower expression levels in the stem of fiber flax than in dehiscent flax. We suggest that hemicellulose composition and cellulose - non-cellulose glycan organisation can vary between stalk cells of different flax subspecies.
Dmitry Galinousky and Tsimafei Padvitski
In this work we used publicly available raw RNA-seq data to elucidate mechanisms of flax fiber biogenesis by measuring expression of cell-wall related genes (cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like and chitinase-like genes) in stem of flax (Linum usitatissimum cv. Bethune). Using public RNA-sequence data we have quantified and characterised the expression of the specific cell-wall genes in the top, middle and bottom parts of the Bethune flax stem. The most prominent findings are: Secondary cell-wall cellulose synthase (CesA) genes are expressed differentially in phloem and xylem in all parts of Bethune stem, in contrast with primary cell-wall cellulose synthase genes. Total expression level of cellulose synthase-like (Csl) genes is tissue invariant (although, CslG and CslE are differentially expressed) and smaller than the total expression of cellulose synthase genes. The CslD2D3 subgroup dominates total expression of CslD genes in both xylem and phloem. Expression levels of all expressed chitinase-like (Ctl) genes are tissue dependent in all parts of stem. Total expression level of chitinase-like genes is much higher than expression of cellulose synthase and cellulose synthase-like genes in both tissues.
Letizia Mazzini, Fabiola De Marchi, Lucia Corrado and Sandra D’Alfonso
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as motor neuron disease or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that targets motor neurons in the spinal cord, cortex and brain stem. Selective degeneration of corticospinal (upper) and spinal (lower) motor neurons manifests as a linear decline in muscular function, eventually resulting in paralysis, speech and swallowing deficits and death, usually from impaired respiratory function, over a time course of approximately 3-5 years.
Stanisław Pietruszewski and Elvira Martínez
The effect of magnetic field on the growth and yield of crop plants is presented based on 80 references on the studies of many authors. The introduction gives an outline of the history of the effect of magnetic field on biological organisms including plants since the second half of the 19th century. Then the role of static and alternating magnetic fields is discussed in relation to seed germination, root and stem growth, yield, protein and chlorophyll content, rhizosphere community.
Sateesh Suthari, Boda Ravi Kiran and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) grows abundantly in polluted Peri-urban Greater Hyderabad, India. It is collected at no cost and sold in the market as a leafy vegetable in the name of “Ceylon Spinach”. The plant accumulates iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in roots and leaves. Soil samples were analyzed for pH, EC, available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) and showed significant metal concentrations of Pb, Mn and Zn, which varied from one location to another. The metal accumulation order in the plants is root>leaf>stem in all the studied sites. The results revealed that the massive roots of alligator weed are effective in the bioconcentrating Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd, although the plant parts are rich in nutraceuticals like phenolics and antioxidants. Therefore, low income community prefers to consume it as vegetable. However, its consumption as a leafy vegetable can cause health risks.