component of dip-slip.
Their location and orientation stemmed from the correlations between the stratigraphic reconstruction through different borings performed and the electrical tomographies acquired from previous studies. An ephemeral watercourse has set itself, with a south south east - north north west course, along the tectono-karstic depression of the graben, which is locally named as ‘lama’. This depression plays a role in drainage and vehiculation of rainwater. However, the water flow occurs underground (and not on the surface), because of the lithological
Imad Kadiri, Younès Tahir, Omar Iken, Saïf ed-Dîn Fertahi and Rachid Agounoun
incorporates large number of parameters [ 13 ] . These approaches take into account borehole diameter, number of boreholes, borehole length, burden, spacing, stem- ming, charge per delay, horizontal and radial distance to predict PPV and frequency. The main disadvantage of ANN , that we reproof, is that it works as a black box (hidden layers) without any physical aspect of the considered phenomena. [ 14 ]
Other authors attempt to model BIGV by using the Finite Element Method (FEM) . [ 15 ] This type of modelling is confronted with the complexity of the site
The problem of the free vibrations of nonprismatic thin-walled beam systems is interesting for two reasons. The first reason is the need to describe more precisely and solve this mathematically difficult problem that, except for special cases, has no closed analytical solutions. The second reason is practical and stems from the necessity to rationally shape and economically design contemporary civil engineering structures built from thin-walled beams with variable geometrical and material parameters.
The problems relating to thin-walled beam
forces M r and N r , stemming from the unit load applied in the considered displacement point and in the radial direction. According to the reduction theorem used in structural mechanics, in this case, an equivalent model in the form of a planar arc with the geometry of the shell circumferential section, i.e. a 2D model, is used. The model is described further in this paper.
Obviously, the algorithm for calculating displacement r from Eq. (1) in accordance with the procedure described earlier yields the same results as the direct calculation of r in the
Tadeusz Majcherczyk, Zbigniew Niedbalski and Łukasz Bednarek
and reached the value of only 1.5 mm at the maximum ( Fig. 6 ). It may be observed that practically all measurement points in the roof strata dislocate with regular intensiveness. The only exception in this respect is the anchor installed at the depth of 2.48 m, which shows that in this very place, the rocks are subject to slight separation ( Fig. 7 ). It may be, therefore, argued that in this case, such a behaviour stems from the occurrence of a fairly homogeneous and non-stratified roof made of conglomerate and sandstone with varied granulation.
N is equivalent to shear modulus μ , and A are is equivalent to Lame coefficient λ ; R is the modulus of volume elasticity of the liquid; Q is a coupling coefficient stemming from the mutual interaction between the solid phase and the liquid phase, σ ij is a tensor of stress in the skeleton, related to the total RVE surface, defined as a fuzzy stress tensor, σ is the stress in the liquid, related to (similarly as the stress in the skeleton) the total surface area of the RVE cross section, also defined as fuzzy stress, ε ij is a skeleton deformation