References 1. Ahn S.Y., Chang Y.S., Park W.S.: Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for neuroprotection in preterm infants with severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Korean J Pediatr 57(6):251-6,2014. doi: 10.3345/kjp.2014.57.6.251. 2. Bajek A., Olkowska J., Drewa T.: Mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic tool in tissue and organ regeneration. Postepy Hig Med Dosw 24;65:124-32,2011. 3. Ball L.M., et al.: Multiple infusions of mesenchymal stromal cells induce sustained remission in children with steroid
Ewelina Wawryk-Gawda and Beata Wojcik
Jean Paul Kamdem, Sílvio Terra Stefanello, Aline Augusti Boligon, Caroline Wagner, Ige Joseph Kade, Romaiana Picada Pereira, Alessandro De Souza Preste, Daniel Henrique Roos, Emily Pansera Waczuk, Andre Storti Appel, Margareth Linde Athayde, Diogo Onofre Souza and João Batista Teixeira Rocha
Italian Allium species, Plant Food Hum. Nutr . 66 (2011) 11-16; DOI: 10.1007/s11130-010-0204-2. 12. A. A. Boligon, P. R. Pereira, A. C. Feltrin, M. M. Machado, V. Janoyik, J. B. T. Rocha and M. L. Athayde, Antioxidant activities of flavonol derivatives from the leaves and stem bark of Scutia buxifolia Reiss, Biores. Technol . 100 (2009) 6592-6598; DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.03.091. 13. H. Kiliçgün and D. Altiner, Correlation between antioxidant effect mechanisms and polyphenol content of Rosa canina, Pharmacogn. Mag . 23
Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Neil Anthony Koorbanally and Md. Shahidul Islam
stem bark aqueous extract in Wistar rats, Eur. J. Med. Plants 2 (2012) 66-73. 14. I. Funke and M. F. Melzig, Traditionally used plants in diabetes therapy-phytotherapeutics as inhibitors of a-amylase activity, Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 16 (2006) 1-5. 15. S. McDonald, P. D. Prenzier, M. Autokiwich and K. Robards, Phenolics content and antioxidant activity of olive oil extracts, Food Chem. 73 (2001) 73-84; DOI: 10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00288-0. 16. A. K. Tuba and I. Gulcin, Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of
Tania Shamim Rizvi, Abdul Latif Khan, Liaqat Ali, Narjis Al-Mawali, Fazal Mabood, Javid Hussain, Muhammad Adnan and Ahmed Al-Harrasi
The present study investigates the potential role of medicinal plants Citrullus colocynthis and Tephrosia apollinea in ameliorating the oxidative stress developed during the generation of reactive oxygen species. Organic extracts of different organs (leaf, stem and root) of these medicinal plants obtained in n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water were assayed for radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, anti-lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. The total phenolic content (TPC) of both selected medicinal plants was also evaluated. The results indicated that extracts of T. apollinea leaf, stem and root have higher TPC compared to those of C. colocynthis. Similarly, the results of the present study revealed higher bioactivity of C. colocynthis than that of T. apollinea in various antioxidant assays. Various plant parts of each plant were also compared.
D. Tekeľová, J. Tóth, Sz. Czigle and A. Koutsoulas
Salvia officinalis L. (sage) is an important essential oil containing Mediterranean medicinal plant that is commonly cultivated for pharmaceutical uses. In addition to essential oil, other compounds participate on the biological effects of sage, mainly diterpenes, triterpenes and phenolic compounds of the hydroxycinnamic and flavonoid types. Sage essential oil content is known to differ in plant parts, and to be influenced by plant phenophase, climatic and edaphic conditions. This work deals with the study of total hydroxycinnamic derivatives (THD), and specifically rosmarinic acid (RA), content variation in different aerial parts of sage linked to different harvest times. Dry sage leaves (Salviae officinalis folium) THD content was quantified using a pharmacopoeial method, and varied between 3.06 % and 3.52 % in different harvest times, with maxima in youngest plant shoot leaves and newly-grown shoots in September. Sage stems showed similar THD content variations when linked to harvest times, however with lower percentage, 1.33 - 3.04 %. Rosmarinic acid variability showed the same trends, its content ranged between 0.76 % and 1.65 % in leaves, and between 0.19 % and 0.83 % in stems, respectively. Highest percentages of both THD and RA were found in top leaves, lowest in leaves from the middle of the stem. When linked to plant phenophase, the content of THD and RA decreased at flowering time.
Olajumoke A. Oyebode, Ochuko L. Erukainure, Neil A. Koorbanally and Md. Shahidul Islam
In this study, we identified bioactive compounds from the ethanolic extracts of the leaves, stem bark and root bark of Acalypha wilkesiana through GC-MS analysis and investigated the effects of these extracts on some of the enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes. Plant parts were extracted sequentially with ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of long-chain alkyl acids, esters, ketones and alcohols including phytol and phytol acetate along with some secondary metabolites such as xanthone, vitamin E and various types of sterols including stigmasterol, campesterol and sitosterol. Ethanolic extracts of all the parts showed a dose- -dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity. The extracts also demonstrated anti-lipase activity. The ethanolic extract of root bark showed the highest inhibition of enzymes compared to other extracts. The EC50 values (concentrations for 50 % inhibition) of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase inhibition were 35.75 ± 1.95, 6.25 ± 1.05 and 101.33 ± 5.21 μg mL-1, resp. The study suggests that A. wilkesiana ethanolic extracts have the ability to inhibit the activity of enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes. Further studies are needed to confirm the responsible bioactive compounds in this regard.
Gaurav Lodhi, Hemant Singh, Kamlesh Pant and Zeashan Hussain
Hepatoprotective effects of Calotropis gigantea extract against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats
Ethanolic extract (50 %) of stems of Calotropis gigantea R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) at doses of 250 and 500 mg kg-1 were studied for hepatoprotective activity in male Wistar rats with liver damage induced using carbon tetrachloride, 2 mL kg-1 twice a week. The protective effect of C. gigantea extract was compared with the standard drug silymarin. Various biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxidedismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated. The results revealed that the C. gigantea extract significantly decreased AST, ALT (p < 0.001) and lipid peroxide (p < 0.01) levels. The antioxidant parameters GSH, GPx, SOD and catalase levels were increased considerably compared to their levels in groups not treated with C. gigantea extract.
Israt Jahan, Mohammad Rahman, Mohammed Rahman, Mohammad Kaisar, Mohammad Islam, Abdul Wahab and Mohammad Rashid
Chemical and biological investigations of Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.
In this study, five compounds, lupeol (1), epilupeol (2), β-sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4) and p-methoxybenzaldehyde (5) were isolated from the petroleum ether and dichloromethane fractions of a methanolic extract of the stem bark of Delonix regia. Antimicrobial screening of the different extracts (15 μg mm-2) was conducted by the disc diffusion method. The zones of inhibition demonstrated by the petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride and dichloromethane fractions ranged from 9-14 mm, 11-13 mm and 9-20 mm, respectively, compared to kanamycin standard with the zone of inhibition of 20-25 mm. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the carbon tetrachloride soluble materials demonstrated the highest toxicity with LC 50 of 0.83 μg mL-1, while petroleum ether and dichloromethane soluble partitionates of the methanolic extract revealed LC 50 of 14.94 and 3.29 μg mL-1, respectively, in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate with LC 50 of 0.812 μg mL-1. This is the first report on compounds separation from D. regia, their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity.
J. Veteskova, M. Obsivan, Z. Kmecova, M. Radik, J. Srankova, E. Malikova, J. Klimas and P. Krenek
;198(9):1391-402.  Shao S, Cai W, Sheng J, Yin L. Role of SDF-1 and Wnt signaling pathway in the myocardial fibrosis of hypertensive rats. Am J Transl Res. 2015;7(8):1345-56.  Srankova J, Doka G, Pivackova L et al. Daunorubicin Down-Regulates the Expression of Stem Cell Markers and Factors Involved in Stem Cell Migration and Homing in Rat Heart in Subchronic but not Acute Cardiomyopathy. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016;119(5):443-452.  Sutendra G, Dromparis P, Paulin R et al. A metabolic remodeling in right ventricular hypertrophy is associated with
László-István Bába, Zsolt Gáll, István Lóránt Bíró, Tibor Mezei, Imre Zoltán Kun and Melinda Kolcsár
serotonin reuptake inhibitors on three sex steroids in two versions of the aromatase enzyme inhibition assay and in the H295R cell assay, Toxicol. in Vitro 29 (2015) 1729-1735; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2015.07.005 8. B. K. Sun, J. H. Kim, J. S. Choi, S. J. Hwang and J. H. Sung, Fluoxetine decreases the proliferation and adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16 (2015) 16655-16668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160716655 9. M. Kolcsár, Z. Gáll, I. L. Bíró, L. I. Bába, A. Imre, M. T. Dogaru and O