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Hanyu Wang and Weihong Kuang

1 Introduction Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established form of therapy for malignant hematological disorders [ 1 , 2 ]. The treatment is complicated by treatment-related mortality because of infections, regimen-related toxicity, and engraftment failure [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a pivotal factor that contributes to engraftment failure [ 6 , 7 ], despite an intensive preparative regimen, an adequate cell dose, and complete donor chimerism. Patients with grade III and grade IV acute GVHD have

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Zhi-Jian Li, Xing-Ling Sui, Xue-Bo Yang and Wen Sun

corresponding BMs and PB, respectively. The comparison among the number of DEGs obtained in the four experiments showed that LB cells did not tend to differentiation and CD34+ was more similar to cancer stem cells. The heatmaps of the top 20 DEGs obtained in the four experiments are shown in Figures 2 – 5 , respectively. As shown in Figure 2 , the top 5 ranked DEGs in experiment 1 were GYPA, LCK, ITK, BCL11B, and RHAG. In Figure 3 , the top 5 ranked DEGs were TAL1, RHOH, MYH10, TYROBP, and CFD. In Figure 4 , the top 5 ranked DEGs were CXCR2, MGAM, TNFRSF10C, KCNJ15, and

Open access

Bing Liu

malignant hematological diseases who have been treated with myeloablative and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The incidence of oral mucositis in patients with bone marrow transplant is high (70%–90%) [ 21 , 22 ]. According to the time of rejection reaction, rejection reaction is considered acute (within 100 days after transplantation) or chronic (100 days after transplantation). Acute rejection reaction with severe manifestation has a high mortality rate. Chronic rejection reaction is manifested in autoimmune diseases, such as skin disease, liver dysfunction

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Li-ping Sun, Hui-yu Li, Xiao-ling Yi, Aime Niyonsaba, Ning-fang Wang and Sheng-hua Jie

bunyavirus through blood contact. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54:249-252. 4. Cocucci E, Racchetti G, Meldolesi J. Shedding microvesicles: artefacts no more.Trends Cell Biol 2009; 19:43-51. 5. Ratajczak J, Miekus K, Kucia1 M, Zhang J, Reca R, Dvorak P, et al. Embryonic stem cell-derived microvesicles reprogram hematopoietic progenitors: evidence for horizontal transfer of mRNA and protein delivery. Leukemia 2006; 20:847-856. 6. Ratajczak J, Wysoczynski M, Hayek F, Janowska-Wieczorek A, Ratajczak MZ. Membrane-derived microvesicles

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Tong Wang

studies have indicated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can restore the barrier function of human alveolar epithelial cells to CK destruction. This mechanism involves the release of angiopoietin-1, which induces S1P production and inhibits the inward migration of endothelial VE-cadherin [ 27 , 28 , 29 ]. 2 ALI/ARDS conservative infusion strategy In a previous study, reducing lung vascular hydrostatic pressure was found to decrease pulmonary edema in the case of increased pulmonary vascular permeability. This experimental result has been confirmed by subsequent

Open access

Hongtao Zhang

. Acetylation and phosphorylation of STAT3 are involved in the responsiveness of microglia to beta amyloid. Neurochem Int, 2015, 81: 48-56. 5 Bonnaure G, Néron S. N-acetyl cysteine regulates the phosphorylation of JAK proteins following CD40-activation of human memory B cells. Mol Immunol, 2014, 62(1): 209-218. 6 Corsini NS, Sancho-Martinez I, Laudenklos S, et al . The death receptor CD95 activates adult neural stem cells for working memory formation and brain repair. Cell Stem Cell, 2009, 5(2): 178-190. 7 Niu FN, Zhang X, Hu XM, et al . Targeted mutation

Open access

Zhao-chun Chi

;9(369):1566-1568. 15. Mikulska M, Nicolini L, Signori A, Rivoli G, Del Bono V, Raiola AM, et al. Hepatitis B reactivation in HBsAg-negative/ HBcAb-positive allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: risk factors and outcome. Clin Microbiol Infect 2014; doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12611. 16. Oketani M, Ido A, Uto H, Tsubouchi H. Prevention of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy or chemotherapy. Hepatol Res 2012;42(7):627-636. 17. Tanaka E, Urata Y. Risk of hepatitis B reactivation in patients

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Wang Zhen-fei, Liu Li, Liang Lin and Hao Qin

become tumor stem cells, thus accelerating tumor invasion and metastasis [ 3 ]. It is therefore of utmost importance to develop nontoxic and efficient drugs to inhibit the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer cells. Chinese medicine and pharmacy are a valuable source of knowledge that warrants in-depth exploration. These have accumulated extensive knowledge of tumor treatments over thousands of years of clinical practice. Besides killing tumor cells, Chinese medicine puts forward many other treatment ideas, such as “Fu Zheng Gu Ben”, “clearing heat and detoxifying

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Muyao Zhang, Xing Wei and Zhenfei Wang

). During the process of chronic inflammation stimulation, IL-6 induces the reprogramming of hepatocytes to liver stem cells through an autocrine effect. Considering that AFP also activates the PI3K/AKT signal to stimulate the expression of some protooncogenes, HBx may induce the transformation of liver stem cells to cancer stem cells [ 9 ]. 3.2 HBx protein promotes the proliferation of hepatoma cells The tumor-suppressive gene p16 is a negative regulator of cell cycle and cell growth. It encodes a cyclin kinase inhibitor, which decreases the phosphorylation level

Open access

Zhaoliang Lu

with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) stimulates activation of the Nrf2 activation pathway to promote G6PD expression 32 . In HCC, HBx protein can directly binding with MDM2 and inhibiting its ubiquitin-directed self-degradation. This change activated the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, so promotes the stem-like properties of OV6(+) liver CSCs 33 . 6 Conclusions HBV has been regarded as the major dangerous factor for liver cancer. HCC is the most common global cancer. However, the mechanism of HBV-mediated pathogenesis still unknown. Evidence