References Amany A, Mohamed S. Effect of concurrent training on CD 34+ /CD 45+ stem cells, VO 2max , certain physical variables and record level of 1500 m running 52 Ischper - SD World congresses, Cairo, Egypt; 2011 Asahara T, Takahashi T, Masuda H, Kalka C, Chen D, Iwaguro H, Inai Y, Silver M, Isner JM. VEGF contributes to postnatal neovascularization by mobilizing bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells. EMBO J , 1999; 18: 3964-3972 Barrett K, Barman S, Boitano S. Ganong Review of Medical
Mohammed Nader Shalaby, Mohammed Saad, Samy Akar, Mubarak Abdelreda Ali Reda and Ahmed Shalgham
Jakość życia pacjenta po zawale mięśnia sercowego leczonego PTCA, komórkami macierzystymi szpiku i poddanego rehabilitacji kardiologicznej. Opis przypadku
Celem pracy była ocena jakości życia pacjenta po zawale mięśnia sercowego, leczonego PTCA i komórkami macierzystymi szpiku, a także poddanego rehabilitacji kardiologicznej. Materiał i metoda: badanie przy pomocy kwestionariusza SF-36 wykonano około 2 lata po zawale. Pacjent: mężczyzna, 46 lat, z zawałem serca trafił do szpitala im. Jana Pawła II w Krakowie, gdzie przeprowadzono zabieg PTCA oraz wszczepienie komórek macierzystych szpiku celem regeneracji uszkodzonego niedokrwieniem mięśnia sercowego. Pacjent przeszedł także rehabilitację szpitalną, sanatoryjną w Polanicy Zdrój oraz kontynuuje rehabilitację w warunkach domowych. Wnioski: w porównaniu z wynikami innych badaczy można stwierdzić, że pacjent po PTCA, komórkach macierzystych i rehabilitacji kardiologicznej uzyskał wyższe wyniki w zakresie wszystkich skal, za wyjątkiem RP (ograniczenia z powodu zdrowia fizycznego), w porównaniu z wynikami innych chorych po zawale mięśnia sercowego. Ogólna ocena jakości życia i całkowite zdrowie psychiczne okazały się także wyższe od wartości uzyskanych przez pacjentów wyłącznie po PTCA, jedynie wartość całkowitego zdrowia fizycznego okazała się niższa. Ogólna jakość życia okazała się również wyższa w porównaniu z wynikami uzyskanymi przez pacjentów po CABG.
Emilia Wysoczańska and Anna Skrzek
References  Nishimura S., Yasuda A., Iwai H., Takano M., Kobayashi Y., Nori S., et al., Time-dependent changes in the microenvironment of injured spinal cord affects the therapeutic potential of neural stem cell transplantation for spinal cord injury. Mol. Brain, 2013, 6, 3.  Srivastava R., Sharmila S., Stem cells and human diseases. Springer, Heidelberg - Dordrecht - London - New York 2012.  Harkema S., Gerasimenko Y., Hodes J., Burdick J., Angeli C., Chen Y., et al., Effect of epidural stimulation of
Szymon Czech, Jacek Hermanson, Piotr Rodak, Tomasz Stołtny, Łukasz Rodak, Sławomir Kasperczyk, Bogdan Koczy and Michał Mielnik
1st Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery who were specialists in the field of trauma and orthopaedics. The R3 acetabular system with Verilast articulation and Nanos hip stem (Smith&Nephew) were used in all patients. All patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were invited for a medical appointment to the hospital outpatient clinic. Among 137 patients who fulfilled criteria, 106 subjects accepted the invitation. During the appointment, the patients underwent routine physical examinations following the Harris Hip Score protocol, responded to the UCLA
D. Popescu, R. Nedelcu, Şt. Trifu and C. Cîrstoiu
Purpose. The periprosthetic fractures are a more and more often encountered type of pathology, in which the main problem is the indication for surgery. The most important thing is the choice of the best therapeutic option in order to get a solid fixation of the fracture and, in the end, to allow an early patient’s mobilization. Materials and method. 38 cases of periprosthetic fractures have been treated in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Department of University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest, between 2010 and 2016. International Vancouver classification was used for all cases. The osteosynthesis saving the femoral stem was preferred in 22 cases, as its stability was not affected. Stem revision was performed in 16 cases, as this was unstable due to the fracture. Acetabular component was also revised in 4 cases, as the PE insert presented severe wear. The patients were aged 52 to 84 years old and sex ratio M/ F = 13/ 25. Osteosynthesis was performed using Dall-Miles plates and molded plates, with braided cables or wire cerclage. Long stems, uncemented with or without distal locking, were used in 16 cases. Results. Postoperatively, the bone repair was efficient regarding the stability in most of the cases. The patients’ mobilization was early in most of the cases, except for the very old patients with associated comorbidities and limited biological resources. Conclusions. An appropriate surgical indication, adapted on each type of peri-implant fracture, leads to a good result, with early mobilization and the best consolidation of the fracture.
Andrzej Klusiewicz, Lech Borkowski, Dariusz Sitkowski, Krystyna Burkhard-Jagodzińska, Beata Szczepańska and Maria Ładyga
The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of indirect methods of assessment of VO2max for estimation of physical capacity of trained male and female rowers during a training cycle. A group of 8 female and 14 male rowers performed the maximal intensity test simulating the regatta distance (a 2 km test) and a submaximal incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. The suitability of the indirect methods of predicting VO2max during the training cycle was evaluated by performing the tests twice: in females at an interval of five months and in males at an interval of seven months. To indirectly estimate VO2max, regression formulas obtained for the linear relationship between the examined effort indices were utilized based on 1) mean power obtained in the 2 km test, and 2) submaximal exercises after the estimation of PWC170. Although the suitability of the two indirect methods of assessment of VO2max was statisticaly confirmed, their usefulness for estimation of changes in physical fitness of trained rowers during the training cycle was rather low. Such an opinion stems from the fact that the total error of these methods (range between 4.2-7.7% in female and 5.1-7.4% in male rowers) was higher than the real differences in VO2max values determined in direct measurements (between the first and the second examination maximal oxygen uptake rose by 3.0% in female rowers and decreased by 4.3% in male rowers).
R. Bohîlțea, N. Turcan, T.A. Georgescu and M.M. Cîrstoiu
Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of advanced genito-mammary cancer patients. Skeletal involvement is particularly common in breast cancer. Bone metastases induce a wide range of symptoms, lowering the quality of life and shortening survival. The normal bone remodeling process is deeply affected in all types of metastases: osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed. The main mechanisms involved in bone metastatic dissemination are the expression of adhesion tumor molecules and corresponding receptors within bone marrow and bone matrix cells; local growth factors, molecular mechanisms of remodeling the hematopoietic stem cell activity, and alteration of the expression of the post-transcriptional regulatory microRNAs of the gene expression are the new theories developed from recent studies. Abnormalities in the number of copies of the 16q23 gene explain the increased risk of bone metastasis of breast cancer compared to its dissemination to the other organs; the mutual interaction between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment constitutes the element that stimulates both bone destruction and tumor development. Endothelin -1, bone morphogenic proteins, platelet-derived growth factor, Wnt proteins stimulate proliferation and osteoblastic activity. Genomic and proteomic studies underlie the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment and prevention of bone metastases.
The Freedom of the Body in the Semiotics and Philosophy of Sport
Purpose. The aim of this paper is to define the meaning of sports world records, which to attain require long years of strenuous training, within the sphere of humanistic and cultural values. The differences between newly placed records and previous scores are usually centimetres or hundredths of a second, which hardly contribute to the spectacularity of a competition. Is therefore setting a record more meaningful as a cultural, not a sports, goal? Methods. A semiotic-pragmatic method was used in this research. The method was founded on C.S. Peirce's semeiotics, which is a sign theory based on the triadic, relational concept of signs. Every sporting event, every individual achievement of an athlete is a sign, which acquires meaning due to its interpretation and being part of the so-called process of semiosis. Results. The popularity and cultural meaning of particular sports does not result from the immanent features of a sporting competition, such as its aesthetic merits or the dynamics of the game. The differences in times of the best runners in a prestigious 100 metre race are unperceivable to the human eye. The attraction stems from cultural factors, which are meaningful in the sphere of values of a given culture. One of such values in which sport relates to it is freedom. Conclusions. Striving for records, even at the cost of one's health, has (for the sports described in the article as contesting) a motivation in the cultural (philosophical) meaning of overcoming the limits of the human body's physical abilities. Every record set means that those limits have not yet been reached and therefore are still unknown. This spiritual freedom is accompanied by the equally vital, as confirmed by records, sense of physical unlimitedness.
oraz materialy pokrewne. Polimery, 2004, 49, 2, 79-88. Balin A. Materialowo uwarunkowane procesy adaptacyjne i trwalość cementów stosowanych w chirurgii kostnej. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Śląskiej, 1610, Hutnictwo, 69, Gliwice 2004. Balin A., Toborek J. Metody ksztaltowania i oceny wlaściwości użytkowych cementów chirurgicznych. Inz. Mat., 2007, 2, 83-90. Lu Z., Mc Kellop H. Effects of cement creep on stem subsidence and stresses in the cement mantle of a total hip replacement
Foul Play in Sport as a Phenomenon Inconsistent with the Rules, yet Acceptable and Desirable
Author considers assumptions related to foul play in sport as a phenomenon, that affect the body, psyche, or relationships - various social involvements, conditionings, and determinants of those involved with that particular form of athletic activity. This includes fouls committed on and off the field, as well as those not even related to a particular game. Our considerations include fouls of a verbal or acoustic nature; fouls in the form of printed materials; those in the form of visual commentary in films, TV shows, Internet appearances, whether in feature films, dramatized documentaries, documentaries or reports presented in a different publications, festivals, exhibitions, during which co-participants, adversaries or competitors make comments on past or future events during or beyond the competition.
Fouls in sport, particularly those committed by athletes during competition, will always be inconsistent with the accepted rules of the game, that is, with the official regulations. Fouls will also always influence - in more or less annoying, depressing, painful or even tragic ways - the fate and the health of athletes.
No logical - conditional, cause and effect - connection exists between a foul and the rules. Neither the need for nor praise of foul play can stem from the regulations. Yet people directly associated with the sport tolerate it because there is a widespread, quiet acquiescence of such play. Foul play is strongly opposed by supporters of the fair play principle, by those who do not regard sports competition as a phenomenon that can be considered independently beyond moral good and evil.
Foul play is seen also as a desirable phenomenon, when inter alia, regardless of the various penalties imposed on players and team, it helps - in the final balance of losses and benefits - to achieve the planned success. Moreover, it is worth adding that, for instance, the so-called "good foul" in basketball enables one to stop the game clock, the so-called pure-play time of the referee. This creates the possibility of obtaining at least one more point (for a possible 3-point shot from a distance) than the team that executes its two one-point penalty shots granted for the offense (that is, "good foul").
Foul play may also enhance the course of the sports spectacle, and encourage spectators to cheer more frequently. This is particularly important when professional athletic contests are treated as a form of business. The dramatization of foul play as a creation of "game" within a game can also be an additional attraction of the competition; foul play might be used as sophisticated and spectacular trickery, that dismays and hurts in its pragmatic-aesthetic construction, both the referee and the opponent.
Foul play in sports has so many forms and will probably never lose its popular and sometimes spectacular character. Knowing that, everything should be done to protect players from bothersome health, interpersonal, and cultural disablements resulting from foul play.