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Lidija Orlic, Ivana Mikolasevic, Martina Pavletic-Persic, Ita Jelic, Sanja Raspor-Flajsman and Sanjin Racki

References 1. Mohty B, Mohty M. Long-term complications and side effects after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: an update. Blood Cancer J2011; 1:e16; doi:10.1038/bcj.2011.14; published online 29 April 2011. 2. Singh N, McNeely J, Parikh S, et al . Kidney complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 2013; 61: 809-821. 3. Martin PJ, Counts Jr GW, Appelbaum FR, et al . Life expectancy in patients surviving more than 5 years after hematopoietic cell transplantation. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 1011

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Dimitrios Schizas, Panagiotis Kapsampelis and Konstantinos S. Mylonas

and glandular differentiation occurs later within the tumor.[ 6 , 7 , 18 , 19 , 20 ] Last but not least, a collision concept has been proposed, in which ASC comes from two individual stem cells that simultaneously and independently undergo malignant transformation.[ 21 , 22 ] Histopathology ASC has various macroscopic tumor types, such as ulcerative, medullary, intraluminal, polypoid and sclerotic, and upon macroscopic inspection, it is indistinguishable from SCC.[ 5 , 6 ] Microscopically, it is characterized by an AC and a SCC component that either have

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Shital Patil and Rujuta Ayachit


Hemoptysis is the predominant symptom of tuberculosis and is considered as important clue toward evaluation of tuberculosis and treatment accordingly, especially in high burden countries like India where disease is endemic. 8-25% cases of pulmonary tuberculosis are having hemoptysis during course of their illness. Unexplained hemoptysis with normal chest radiograph needs further evaluation including CT thorax and bronchoscopy. Bronchoscopy would be ideal choice for confirming diagnosis and to localize exact site of bleeding as well. In this case report, we describe a case of a young male who presented with cough and intermittant hemoptysis. During fiberoptic video-bronchoscopy we noted exophytic endobronchial growth in right main stem bronchus. Histopathological evaluation suggests mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of salivary gland type originating from main stem bronchus right side. PAS and mucicarmine staining differentiated MEC from Adenocarcinoma in our case.

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Justin S. Michael, Bong-Seop Lee, Miqin Zhang and John S. Yu

GBM cancer stem cells Histopathologically, GBM can be distinguished from low-grade gliomas by area of necrosis, microvascular hyperplasia, and pseudopalisades of cells migrating away from the area of necrosis.[ 25 ] These pseudopalisades are located at the cortex–tumor junction, and migrate away from hypoxic and necrotic core. The histologic presentation of microvascular hyperplasia and necrosis may be essential in understanding the infiltrative nature of GBMs. It has been shown recently that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are able to initiate phenotypically human

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Marina Ratkovic, Nikolina Basic Jukic, Danilo Radunovic, Vladimir Prelevic and Branka Gledovic

References 1. Fresenius Medical Care. ESRD patients in 2012. A Global perspective. [monograph on the internet]. Available from: 2. IRODaT International Registry in Organ Donation and Transplantation. Preliminary numbers in 2013. [monograph on the internet]. Available from: 3. Metesanz R. International figures on organ, tissue and hematopoietic stem cell donation and transplantation activities. Documents Produced by the Council of Europe European Committee (partial

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Chunyan Liu and Zonghong Shao

Introduction In the recent years, our studies have demonstrated that T cells were hyperfunctional in patients with acquired aplastic anemia (AA). The excessive apoptosis of hematopoietic stem cells caused by cytotoxic T cells and/or lymphokines is the main pathogenesis of acquired AA. Up to now, acquired AA has been recognized by some scholars as an autoimmune disease with bone marrow (BM) as target organ attacked by the activated T lymphocytes. Therefore, immunosuppressive therapy (IST) has become the best choice for the treatment of acquired AA if there is

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Gautam Rawal, Sankalp Yadav and Raj Kumar

patients and not to be routinely used in ARDS.[ 27 ] Experimental trials In experimental models of ARDS in rats, bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduce the severity of ventilator-induced lung injury by enhancing the regeneration of lung tissue and its repair [ 28 , 29 ]. Studies have shown that MSCs could be of benefit by their property to reduce the production of inflammatory mediators, leukocyte infiltration, tissue injury, and pulmonary failure.[ 30 ] Conclusion There has been considerable research on ARDS in the past decade and

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Alketa Koroshi and Alma Idrizi

(Bethesda) 2009; 24: 88-96. 13. Abbate M Zoja C, Morigi M, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta1 is upregulated by podocytes in response to excess intraglomerular passage of proteins. A central pathway in progressive glomerulosclerosis. Am J Path 2002; 161: 2179. 14. Benzing T. Signaling at the slit diaphragm. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 1382-1391. 15. Lasagni L, Romagnani P. Glomerular epithelial stem cells, the good, the bad, and the ugly. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21: 1612-1619. 16. Welsh GI, Saleem MA. The podocyte cytoskeleton-key to a functioning

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Ningning Zhu, Dijiong Wu and Baodong Ye

not fully elucidated, the consensus is that AA is related to the abnormal immunity, defected hematopoietic microenvironment, shortage or dysfunction of hematopoietic stem cell, as well as genetic abnormality. Large numbers of studies have proved that T lymphocytes have a close relationship with hematopoietic failure.[ 8 ] Based on this, the extensive application and good efficacy of immunosuppressive also confirmed the significance of immunopathology in the development of aplastic anemia.[ 9 , 10 ] The importance of bone marrow to functional qi and blood had been

Open access

Hernán Trimarchi

tubular lineage and their regenerative potential in renal tubular injury. Stem Cells 2012;30:1714-25. 18. Sallustio F, De Benedictis L, Castellano G, Zaza G, Loverre A, Costantino V, et al. TLR2 plays a role in the activation of human resident renal stem/progenitor cells. FASEB J 2010;24:514-25. 19. Kriz W, Shirato I, Nagata M, LeHir M, Lemley KV. The podocyte’s response to stress: The enigma of foot process effacement. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2013;304:F333-47. 20. Couser WG. Basic and translational concepts of immune-mediated glomerular diseases J Am Soc Nephrol