The article analyses the motivation and wordformation structure of the name of the sunflower (bot. Helianthus annuus L.) in dialects of Slavonic languages according to the data given in the Slavonic Linguistic Atlas and in the national dialectal atlases. The characteristic reaction of this plant of American origin to the sunlight motivated the emergence of its names with a wordstem, which is continuation of the Proto Slavonic stem *sъln- in the entire Slavonic language territory. The wordformation type ‘derivative base + derivation suffix’ is typical for the West Slavonic, Slovenian, Ukrainian and Belarusian dialects. For Russian dialects, the characteristic wordformation model is ‘derivation prefix + derivative base + derivation suffix’. Composites like suncokret, suncogled, parallel to the structurally same Italian names girasole, mirasole and Greek name heliotropion, are typical for dialects of the South Slavonic macroarea (except Slovenian and part of the Croatian dialects).
This paper focuses on different types of wordformation uniqueness. Wordformation uniqueness can be found in solitary wordformation structures, which the author defines as unique structures representing a specific wordformation type found in a single derivative. The basic and simplest type is represented by a unique affix in a single derivative in the respective language of a given time period. An example of this is the Czech noun obličej [‘face’]: the circumfix ob-ej (with -lič- as a radix to be found in the noun líce [‘cheek’]) is found in no other noun in the contemporary Czech. Another uniquely formed noun in contemporary Czech is the noun rukáv [‘sleeve’], derived from ruka [‘hand’] with the unique suffix -áv. Specific wordformation solitaires are theoretically conceived values. They are derivatives with a specific, but not uniquely found affix which is uniquely added to the stem of a single word of a specific part of speech, e.g. the very specific suffix -ule is added to the stem of the verb vrtět [‘to wag’] so that the noun vrtule [‘propeller’] is derived. This article shows that the notion of wordformation solitariness can be theoretically postulated on different levels of abstractness, both of the form and of the wordformation meaning.
Marie Mikulová, Eduard Bejček, Veronika Kolářová and Jarmila Panevová
We introduce a corpus based description of selected adverbial meanings in Czech sentences. Its basic repertory is one of a long lasting tradition in both scientific and school grammars. However, before the corpus era, researchers had to rely on their own excerption; but nowadays, current syntax has a vast material basis in the form of electronic corpora available. On the case of spatial adverbials, we describe our methodology which we used to acquire a detailed, comprehensive, well-arranged description of meanings of adverbials including a list of formal realizations with examples. Theoretical knowledge stemming from this work will lead into an improval of the annotation of the meanings in the Prague Dependency Treebanks which serve as the corpus sources for our research. The Prague Dependency Treebanks include data manually annotated on the layer of deep syntax and thus provide a large amount of valuable examples on the basis of which the meanings of adverbials can be defined more accurately and subcategorized more precisely. Both theoretical and practical results will subsequently be used in NLP, such as machine translation.
Topological Modelling of Grammatical and Lexical Aspect in English
This paper stems from a broader research project entitled Analog-based Modelling of Meaning Representations in English (Skrzypczak 2006), and aims to present grammatical aspect and lexical aspect as two modes of encoding the temporal profiles within the conceptualisation of processes (terminologically, in Langackerian sense, imperfective and perfective processes, otherwise, variously labelled as stative and dynamic verbs, i. e. states vs. discrete ‘unitary’ events and non-discrete ‘unbounded’ processes).
It is assumed that aspect in both cases — as a process-profiling category — is analogous to the profiling of things and atemporal relations (in the sense of Langacker 1987, 1990, 2000), given the maximisation of the temporal domain in the characterisation of processes (perfective and imperfective, hence: dynamic and stative), and minimalisation of the temporal domain during the conceptualisation of things (conceptually independent entities) and atemporal relations (conceptually dependent atemporal configurations). The analogy between nouns and verbs in terms of ‘granularity’ has been so far variously addressed by Langacker (1990), Jackendoff (1991) and Talmy (2001), and also constitutes the core assumption in my research on topological modelling.
A person’s willingness to communicate (WTC), believed to stem from a combination of proximal and distal variables comprising psychological, linguistic, educational and communicative dimensions of language, appears to be a significant predictor of success in language learning. The ability to communicate is both a means and end of language education, since, on the one hand, being able to express the intended meanings in the target language is generally perceived as the main purpose of any language course and, on the other, linguistic development proceeds in the course of language use. However, MacIntyre (2007, p. 564) observes that some learners, despite extensive study, may never become successful L2 speakers. The inability or unwillingness to sustain contacts with more competent language users may influence the way learners are evaluated in various social contexts. Establishing social networks as a result of frequent communication with target language users is believed to foster linguistic development. WTC, initially considered a stable personality trait and then a result of context-dependent influences, has recently been viewed as a dynamic phenomenon changing its intensity within one communicative event (MacIntyre and Legatto, 2011; MacIntyre et al., 2011). The study whose results are reported here attempts to tap into factors that shape one’s willingness to speak during a communicative task. The measures employed to collect the data - selfratings and surveys - allow looking at the issue from a number of perspectives.
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