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The EU Air Transport Liberalization and Re-Regulation

Abstract

Over the last decades, international air transport liberalization has steadily evolved. As a consequence, many initiatives all over the world have paved the way to enhance international air transport liberalization, and numerous models have been hypothesized for a new multilateral aviation regime to supplant bilateralism, which however, remains the primary vehicle for liberalizing international air transport services for most States. Th e present study aims at investigating the EU experience in the field of liberalization and re-regulation of air transport, taking into account the other approaches developed internationally, where relevant. Th e paper is divided into four sections. Aft er having introduced, in the first section, the different forms and venues of liberalization and regulation of international air transport, the process of Community liberalizations is analyzed, taking into account, on one side, the most recent air transport agreements in this field between the EU and third countries and, on the other side, the actual and potential benefits and drawbacks stemming from the implementation of these liberalization policies, which are still ongoing. In the last part of the paper, a new legal order in international air transport - stemming from the recent liberalization and re-regulation policies in the "Old Continent" - will be identified. In order to overcome the political and legal issues brought about by the liberalization and re-regulation of air transport worldwide, the paper concludes that stronger cooperation between international and regional actors must be implemented, and a global approach within a specialized international organization should be enhanced.

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Child Marriage and the Failure of International Law: a Comparison of American, Indian, and Canadian Domestic Policies

Summary

What is child marriage? The recognized definition does not adequately encompass the experience of child marriage. Child marriage stems from many elements, including coercion, force, and economic deprivation. Furthermore, child marriages have a long-term effect on child spouses, ranging from psychological damage, to health complications, to education and personal limitations. This paper argues that current international treaties and agreements do not specifically or directly address the issue of child marriage. Of those that make an attempt to, fail as a result of lack of enforcement or too much deference to religion as an exception of child marriage prohibition. In comparing three countries – The United States, India, and Canada, it is clear that Canadian policies work best and should be implemented on a larger scale. Current U.S. policies do not fully combat the child marriage phenomena, and although it is ahead of India in this area, it still has a long way to go in terms of development.

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The Bits in the Age of Globalization

Relationship Of A Ménage À Trois. Icsid Review - Foreign Investment Law Journal, 2000, Vol. 15, No. 2. Wenhua, Shan. The International Law Of Eu Investment In China. Chinese Journal Of International Law, 2002, Vol. 1, No. 2. Wierzbowski, Marek, Gubrynowicz, Aleksander. Conflict Of Norms Stemming From Intra-Eu Bits And Eu Legal Obligations: Some Remarks On Possible Solutions. In Binder, Christina, Kriebaum, Ursula, Reinisch, August, Wittich, Ste­phan (Eds). International Investment Law For The 21st Century: Essays In Honour Of Christoph

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