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A Template For Enhancing The Impact of The National Academy of Sciences’ Reporting on Forensic Science

Abstract

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS), established in 1863, is the United States’ leading science and technology think-tank, with an active commitment to advising government. Over the last 150 years, the NAS has, both independently and in conjunction with the federal government, investigated and reported on various issues of importance, ranging from space exploration and biosecurity, to STEM education and immigration. Due to growing concerns about particular disciplines (and specifically their application in legal proceedings), one issue the NAS has reported on between 1992 and 2009 is forensic science. Specifically, the NAS has published six reports commenting on the status of forensic science evidence in the USA, namely DNA Technology in Forensic Science (1992), The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence (1996), The Polygraph and Lie Detection (2003), Forensic Analysis: Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence (2004), Ballistic Imaging (2008), and Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009). The response of stakeholders (including from political, legal, and academic spheres) to these reports has varied, ranging from shifts in practice and full acknowledgement, to considerable struggles to effectuate systemic reform. Using the different experiences of two reports – Forensic Analysis: Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence (2004) and Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009) – as a vehicle, this article suggests how the NAS can strengthen the impact of its forensic science reporting, and how stakeholders can better harness the expertise of the NAS.

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“To Promote the General Welfare”: Addressing Political Corruption in America

participate in the process; those interests are diffused, difficult to organize, or lack the resources to invest in political action. Further, neither the judiciary nor the President is in the business of blocking corrupted, welfare-reducing legislation. Finally, most corrupted legislation is obscure, hidden in important unrelated bills, and devoid of interest to the media and media audiences. The canonical checks and balances simply do not work in stemming non-salient, welfare-reducing, and redistributive legislation and regulation. A major purpose of any democratic

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The EU Air Transport Liberalization and Re-Regulation

Abstract

Over the last decades, international air transport liberalization has steadily evolved. As a consequence, many initiatives all over the world have paved the way to enhance international air transport liberalization, and numerous models have been hypothesized for a new multilateral aviation regime to supplant bilateralism, which however, remains the primary vehicle for liberalizing international air transport services for most States. Th e present study aims at investigating the EU experience in the field of liberalization and re-regulation of air transport, taking into account the other approaches developed internationally, where relevant. Th e paper is divided into four sections. Aft er having introduced, in the first section, the different forms and venues of liberalization and regulation of international air transport, the process of Community liberalizations is analyzed, taking into account, on one side, the most recent air transport agreements in this field between the EU and third countries and, on the other side, the actual and potential benefits and drawbacks stemming from the implementation of these liberalization policies, which are still ongoing. In the last part of the paper, a new legal order in international air transport - stemming from the recent liberalization and re-regulation policies in the "Old Continent" - will be identified. In order to overcome the political and legal issues brought about by the liberalization and re-regulation of air transport worldwide, the paper concludes that stronger cooperation between international and regional actors must be implemented, and a global approach within a specialized international organization should be enhanced.

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Child Marriage and the Failure of International Law: a Comparison of American, Indian, and Canadian Domestic Policies

Summary

What is child marriage? The recognized definition does not adequately encompass the experience of child marriage. Child marriage stems from many elements, including coercion, force, and economic deprivation. Furthermore, child marriages have a long-term effect on child spouses, ranging from psychological damage, to health complications, to education and personal limitations. This paper argues that current international treaties and agreements do not specifically or directly address the issue of child marriage. Of those that make an attempt to, fail as a result of lack of enforcement or too much deference to religion as an exception of child marriage prohibition. In comparing three countries – The United States, India, and Canada, it is clear that Canadian policies work best and should be implemented on a larger scale. Current U.S. policies do not fully combat the child marriage phenomena, and although it is ahead of India in this area, it still has a long way to go in terms of development.

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The Bits in the Age of Globalization

Relationship Of A Ménage À Trois. Icsid Review - Foreign Investment Law Journal, 2000, Vol. 15, No. 2. Wenhua, Shan. The International Law Of Eu Investment In China. Chinese Journal Of International Law, 2002, Vol. 1, No. 2. Wierzbowski, Marek, Gubrynowicz, Aleksander. Conflict Of Norms Stemming From Intra-Eu Bits And Eu Legal Obligations: Some Remarks On Possible Solutions. In Binder, Christina, Kriebaum, Ursula, Reinisch, August, Wittich, Ste­phan (Eds). International Investment Law For The 21st Century: Essays In Honour Of Christoph

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Adventures in Higher Education, Happiness, And Mindfulness

, discipline, effort, environment, genetics, identity, mindset, motivation, resilience, and time. Education professor Jin Li analyzes fundamental differences in the cultural orientations that exist between European-American and East Asian attitudes towards learning, despite both cultures having similar educational content in their K-12 systems and valuing the goal of learning. Jin Li, Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West (2012). In a European-American model of learning stemming from a Western intellectual tradition of Socrates, the goal of education is to

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Justices as “Sacred Symbols”: Antonin Scalia and the Cultural Life of the Law

jurisprudence, and which ultimately led to two judicial appointments under Reagan: one to the U.S. Court of Appeals (D.C. Circuit) in 1982, and the other to the Supreme Court in 1986. Scalia’s ascension to the Court, like so many other SCOTUS justices, was a reward for political service. But would Scalia fulfill his judicial “mandate” as a Reagan nominee, or would he feel unshackled by his lifetime appointment to the nation’s highest court? The idea of judicial mandates arises from the fact that in the U.S. federal judicial appointment stems from a political process

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Two Concepts of Freedom in Criminal Jurisprudence

theory that purports to serve as a basis for the building blocks of national government. J OHN R AWLS , A T HEORY O F J USTICE (rev. ed., 1999). Rawls assumes that in each society there are both shared and conflicting interests. Shared interests stem from the realization that cooperation is preferable to each individual acting alone. Conflicting interests are rooted in each individual’s concern with the societal distribution of rights and obligations. Id . at 4. For this reason, says Rawls, it is necessary to create several principles to allow for the just

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Dispute Settlement Mechanisms in U.S. FTAs with Korea, Panama, Peru and Colombia: Basic Designs, Key Characteristics and Implications

would mean that the concerns over the ISDS proceedings stemming from fears of possible erosion of a state’s regulatory authority still apply to the ISDS proceedings of the four agreements. Joint Committees of the four free trade agreements are also supposed to play an important role in the administration of the agreements. These committees are non-binding consultative bodies, but offer a forum to discuss and resolve disputes arising from the free trade agreements. At the same time, the committees are tasked with organizing, administering and monitoring dispute

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The Holmes Truth: Toward a Pragmatic, Holmes-Influenced Conceptualization of the Nature of Truth

helped provide a broad representation of years. Before drawing central understandings regarding the Court’s conceptualization of the nature of truth from the discourse put forth in these cases, the primary facts, questions, ideas, and overall outcomes are briefly outlined. A Pennekamp v. Florida In Pennekamp , in 1946, the Court overturned a Florida Supreme Court decision to uphold contempt charges against editors at the Miami Herald . The charges stemmed from editorials the criticized Dade County judges’ decisions. Pennekamp v. Florida, 328 U.S. 331, 349

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