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Influence of Different Soil Substrates, Planting Time and Stem Cuttings Type on Vegetative Propagation and Growth Characteristics of Vitex Agnus-Castus L. / Vplyv Rôznych Pôdnych Substrátov, Času Výsadby a Typov Stonkových Odrezkov na Vegetatívne Rozmnožovanie a Rastové Vlastnosti Vitex Agnus-Castus L.

Abstract

The study of vegetative propagation of the Vitex agnus-castus L., was conducted in the Agriculture College - Salahaddin University field under controlled condition (plastic greenhouse) in two periods (summer time: from 26.5.2008 to 2.9.2008 and winter time: from 15.1.2009 to 28.4.2009). The object of the studies were different soil substrates (sand and river (sharp) sand - sand and peat moss - sand and river (sharp) sand and peat moss). We used two types of stem cuttings (semi-hardwood cuttings „m“ - softwood cuttings „a“). The statistical analysis is based on the experimental project Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The results were compared with results from Duncan test at 0.05 level. The study showed that planting in the second period (T2) causes increase in number of branches and leaves, whereas planting in the first period (T1) causes increase in number of roots and root length, the increase in the weight of biomass and dry mass has been observed in the second period of planting (T2). Planting in the sand substrate using semi-hardwood cuttings (m) causes increase in number of branches, leaves, fresh weight, number of roots and root length

Open access
EVALUATION OF DRY MATTER PRODUCTION OF MISCANTHUS SINENSIS (TATAI) IN THE CONDITIONS OF SOUTH-WESTERN SLOVAKIA

Abstract

In this paper, we present the results of research of phytomass production allocated to aboveground organs, leaves and stalks, after the third growing year. The research was conducted in the field experiment conditions of Farm holding in Kolíňany. The results of the aboveground dry matter production are expressed in tonnes of dry weight produced on the area of one hectare (t.ha-1). The total dry weight of the aboveground biomass was 6.89 t.ha-1 at the end of the first growing year 2010. In the growing year 2011, it reached 15.21 t.ha-1 (an increase by 121 %.) The total dry weight of the aboveground phytomass increased by 37% compared to 2011, and it reached 20.82 t.ha-1 in the third growing year (2012). The increase of phytomass is directly proportional to off shoot circle. Average off shoot circle of individuals in the first growing year was 300 mm and the average number of stems produced in a clump was 37.60. In 2011, the average off shoot circle of individuals was 502 mm and there were 43.73 stems created in a clump. In the third growing period of 2013, the extension of the off shoot circle by 113.7% (641 mm) was registered in comparison with 2010 and the amount of 80.19 stems per clump was recorded.

Open access
Evaluation of Population Regulation of Invasive Species Fallopia × Bohemica by Repeated Mowing

Abstract

Population regulation of invasive species Fallopia × bohemica by repeated mowing was evaluated in experimental research plots in Babindol and Klasov. The mowings were carried out repeatedly (three mowings) during the growing season 2010. The statistical evaluation confirmed that the mechanical regulation of populations of Fallopia × bohemica significantly influenced the dynamics of shoot height as well as the diameter at the base of a stem. Significantly less marked decline of the population density had occured after the 2nd mowing. For the best controll in the future, we suggest the application of mechanical regulation in shorter intervals depending on a growth rate.

Open access
Influence of Ecological and Integrated Management of Farming on Biodiversity of Basic Epigeic Group

Abstract

Population regulation of invasive species Fallopia × bohemica by repeated mowing was evaluated in experimental research plots in Babindol and Klasov. The mowings were carried out repeatedly (three mowings) during the growing season 2010. The statistical evaluation confirmed that the mechanical regulation of populations of Fallopia × bohemica significantly influenced the dynamics of shoot height as well as the diameter at the base of a stem. Significantly less marked decline of the population density had occured after the 2nd mowing. For the best controll in the future, we suggest the application of mechanical regulation in shorter intervals depending on a growth rate.

Open access
LIFE CYCLE OF MISCANTHUS × GIGANTEUS (GREEF ET DEU) GROWN IN SOUTHWESTERN SLOVAKIA CONDITIONS

Abstract

The paper presented herein evaluates the life cycle of perennial grass Miscanthus × giganteus (Greef et Deu), a promising secondgeneration energy crop. The plants of the three-year-old stand (2010-2012) grown on arable land in southwestern Slovakia consisted only from vegetative organs in the first and second year of the cultivation (vegetative phase and phase of stem elongation). In the third growing year (2012), a part of the plants entered the reproductive phase and the phase of seed maturation. From August to September, 7-8% of stems in clumps flowered. Vegetative and productive shoots were identified in the clumps. The ripe seeds after harvesting (126 days) did not germinate at standard germination conditions. The analysis of the characteristics of leaf quantity and location of stomata pointed to the impact of individual life cycle of leaves on the number of stomata. The number of stomata was lower in juvenile leaves compared with mature leaves. Statistically highly significant dependence of leaf surface and leaf age on the number of stomata was found.

Open access
Determination of lithium bioretention by maize under hydroponic conditions

Abstract

Irrigation of cultivated plants can be a source of toxic lithium to plants. The data on the effect of lithium uptake on plants are scant, that is why a research was undertaken with the aim to determine maize ability to bioaccumulate lithium. The research was carried out under hydroponic conditions. The experimental design comprised 10 concentrations in solution differing with lithium concentrations in the aqueous solution (ranging from 0.0 to 256.0 mg Li ∙ dm-3 of the nutrient solution). The parameters based on which lithium bioretention by maize was determined were: the yield, lithium concentration in various plant parts, uptake and utilization of this element, tolerance index (TI) and translocation factor (TF), metal concentrations in the above-ground parts index (CI) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). Depression in yielding of maize occurred only at the highest concentrations of lithium. Lithium concentration was the highest in the roots, lower in the stems and leaves, and the lowest in the inflorescences. The values of tolerance index and EC50 indicated that roots were the most resistant organs to lithium toxicity. The values of translocation factor were indicative of intensive export of lithium from the roots mostly to the stems. The higher uptake of lithium by the above-ground parts than by the roots, which primarily results from the higher yield of these parts of the plants, supports the idea of using maize for lithium phytoremediation.

Open access
Antagonism between lead and zinc ions in plants

Abstract

The article presents the results of research which describes antagonism between Pb-Zn in selected plant species from the area of Czestochowa – Mirow district (north-western part of the Czestochowa Upland). There were analyzed changes in the ratio of Pb/Zn in different organs of the tested plants as a function of the Zn content changes. The content of metals in the plants and the soil was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry AAS. In all organs of the plants there was observed antagonistic decrease of Pb uptake and accumulation, resulting from the increase in the concentration Zn.

Antagonism between Zn and Pb in roots of the tested plants occurred at Zn content of 200–600 μg/g. In turn, antagonism in stems and flowers occurred at lower contents of zinc (100–180 μg/g). In leaves, antagonism between Pb and Zn occurred when Zn was present at the level of 300–800 μg/g.

Ex definition of the analyses confirm the presence of antagonism of lead with regard to high levels of Zn. The study also confirmed that the degree of antagonism depends on the plant species.

Open access
Dynamic risk assessment method – a proposal for assessing risk in water supply system / Metoda dynamicznego szacowania ryzyka – propozycja oceny ryzyka w systemie zaopatrzenia wody

Abstract

System Dynamics is methodology for modeling and analyzing complex systems. Such systems can be characterized by interconnectedness and feedback. Applying risk assessment to the results of System Dynamics models is a challenge. Though in some cases the resulting time series data generated by a simulation may appear approximately random at a specific scale, there is often a high-degree of auto-correlation within the data series due to the deterministic nature of generation and feedback loops inherent in the system. This paper presents proposed Dynamic Risk Assessment Method (DRAM) that allows for the estimation of risk for system dynamics data series that appear to be approximately random. DRAM is based on standard risk assessment methods and is simple both to calculate and apply. In this article, the proposed method is applied to determine the risk connected with hypothetical costs of illness stemming from water supply system contamination with Cryptosporidium.

Open access
Changes in Oxygen Conditions in Pławniowice Reservoir as a Result of Restoration with Hypolimnetic Withdrawal Method

Abstract

The restoration of the anthropogenic Pławniowice water reservoir with the hypolimnion withdrawal method (the Olszewski's tube) began in December 2003. The decision to restore the reservoir had been taken due to its terrible condition resulting from the hypertrophy, which had been indicated by the research from the years 1993–1998.

The following paper presents the results of eight-year-long research into the formation of oxygen conditions and restoration settings. They were compared with the data obtained from the research before the restoration. Positive changes were witnessed. It was showed that grasping the changes in oxygen conditions enables the comparison of oxygen profiles in the same months in subsequent years. The ratio of anoxic water layer thickness to the oxygenated layer thickness was suggested as a factor characterizing oxygen conditions. The area described with an izooxa in the xy coordinate system was suggested as a factor [O2 mg/m2] allowing researchers to understand and describe occurring changes. It was observed that the oxygen solved in water as a result of the restoration occurred in the whole water column in the third decade of July. The oxygen concentration in the hypolimnion gradually rose in May, June and July each year. It was showed that the improvement in oxygen conditions stemmed from progressing oligotrophy of the reservoir.

Open access
Phytotoxicity of Sodium Chloride Towards Common Duckweed (Lemna Minor L.) and Yellow Lupin (Lupinus Luteus L.)

Abstract

Salinity has adverse effects on plants and is one of the causes of environment degradation. Plants have developed many defensive mechanisms, protecting them from sodium chloride (NaCl), including accumulation of osmoprotective compounds, which maintain osmotic balance, protect cell structure and enzymes. In the current study, we investigated the effects of salinity resulting from a range of sodium chloride concentrations (from 0 to 400 mM) on the growth of common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.). Increasing concentration of sodium chloride decreased the area of common duckweed leaves. At the highest applied salt concentration, the decrease of leaf area was associated with leaf chlorosis. In yellow lupin, the increasing sodium chloride concentration inhibited root and stem elongation. The highest tested NaCl concentration of 400 mM completely stopped elongation of yellow lupin shoots. The content of cyclitols and soluble carbohydrates in plant tissues was evaluated as well. Cyclitols (D -chiro -inositol and D -pinitol), as well as soluble carbohydrates (glucose, fructose and sucrose) were detected in common duckweed tissues. Yellow lupin seedlings also contained cyclitols - D -pinitol, myo -inositol and D -chiro -inositol - and soluble carbohydrates - glucose, galactose and sucrose. The content of osmoprotectants in plant tissues, especially sucrose and cyclitols, increased with increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the soil. The results indicate that the content of cyclitols and soluble carbohydrates in plant tissues can be an indicator of plant response to salinity stress.

Open access