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Tomasz Panecki

Abstract

The aim of the article was a comparison of the content’s scope, classification and presentation methods on topographical maps issued at the turn of 19th and 20th century covering the territory of former Russian partition. Three of such maps were chosen for the analysis, namely: Russian (scale 1:84,000), Austrian (scale 1:75,000) and German (scale 1:100,000). As a starting point of the study served an attempt at reconstruction of map legends, as, a coherent symbology key (i.e. map legend) can be found neither for Russian nor German map. It was conducted by employing the symbology keys prepared in the Interwar Period, as for the Russian map there was no legend enclosed, while in the case of German the legend enclosed featured only the road network. Apart from the legends, an analysis of the map sheets covering four areas was conducted. Those areas were, as follow: Brest, Dęblin, Pinsk and Pułtusk vicinites. The next stage was to elaborate a legend comparison with summary in the form of a table for particular thematic layers: settlement and built-up area, transport network, sacral buildings facilities and other buildings, land cover, hydrography, relief, and borders. An assumption was made that despite the apparent similarity of the scales (1:75,000, 1:84,000, 1:100,000) and source materials the maps analysed are distinct in terms of presentation of the geohistorical landscape. The settlements on the Russian map were illustrated in a schematic manner, while the other maps approached the subject more meticulously. The discrepancies involve also such areas as: road network, land cover, and waters, which were categorised along different sets of criterion. It happened that some categories present on the Russian map were absent from the Austrian and German. It involved such objects as: fascine roads, wooden churches or radiostations. Those differences stem from not only the “military mode” of elaboration of the German and Austrian map, but also conscious interference in the scope of content and classification methods.

Open access

Ilmari Käihkö

. Ideally, reconciliation is possible after war as long as force was used for legitimate reasons and in ways considered honorable. Similarly, and as Schelling (2008 : 120) observes, conventions also offer “a graceful way out” with “no enduring costs in refusing to compete”. Conversely, and as discussed later, without adhering to the same institution of waging war, war offers no such way out and becomes perpetual. Historically, the strengthening of the state led to the gradual decrease of private conflicts and use of violence stemming from personal honor, which then fed

Open access

Vladimír Naxera and Petr Krčál

the historically first direct election in 2013. Equipped with a strong legitimacy stemming from the nation-wide popular vote, Zeman began to serve his function in office in a way that further polarized Czech society. Zeman actively intervened in political processes in a manner that did not correspond to a parliamentary regime or constitutionally determined powers ( Brunclík and Kubát 2016 ), thus destabilizing the Czech political scene. Furthermore, immediately after his election, he became highly active in the media and granted interviews to daily tabloid

Open access

Petr Kužel

Abstract

Football, the most popular game all over the world, reached the territory of todayʼs Czech Republic in the last decades of the 19th century. In Prague districts and suburbs especially, many Czech and German sport associations started to engage in this sport activity originally born in Britain. The sudden and long-lasting interruption of a positive development due to the mobilization in summer 1914 along with significant political and social changes following the end of First World War, isolated pre-war events and made of them the unique relict environment which forms the main topic of this paper. Leaving sports results aside, the study describes the period after 1900 in which football clubs were established, the enthusiastic amateur transformed into a professional player, loyalty to different teams stemmed on the basis of nationality and social status and football moved from the suburbs’ playgrounds to newly-built, larger and better-quality arenas.

Open access

Sławomir Łodziński and Sergiusz Rudnicki

Abstract

The article tries to analyze the participation and political representation of the Polish minority in Ukraine and the Ukrainian minority in Poland in the period 1990-2015. Its meaning stems from at least several reasons. Firstly, because the both states officially accepted national minorities after 1990, they have introduced institutional arrangements of protection of their rights and have signed the major international documents in this area. Secondly, because the process of adaptation of European standards of minority protection took place in both countries in the situation of deep democratic changes and market reforms. Hence, the question of the role of minority policy in this has emerged. Thirdly, because the both countries are linked to one another because of a shared common history that sometimes divides societies and public opinion in these states and the political activity of both groups can increase or diminish these socio-political divisions. In the case of the Polish minority in Ukraine this article draws attention to the lack of political representation at country level and its limited activity as the Polish group at the local level (based on the Zhytomyr example). On the other hand in the case of the Ukrainian minority in Poland the article highlights the process of gradual decline of its political activity on the country level (as a result of the spatial dispersion of this group and the absence of a political partner on the country political scene) while we may observe its political activity at the local level.

Open access

Tomasz Kamusella

used it for writing Kipchak, Slavic, or Turkish until the turn of the 20 th century. The Slavic Orthodox alphabet of Cyrillic – that stems from the Slavonic translation of the Bible – was adopted for writing Belarusian, Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, or Ukrainian. The spread of the use of holy scripts for writing other than holy languages (vernaculars) is connected to empires or diasporas. The initial spread of the Latin script took place across the Roman Empire, then Charlemagne’s Frankish Empire took over this role, and subsequently the Holy Roman Empire, before

Open access

Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad and Paul van Trigt

Catholics balanced each other out. The almost proverbial politics of accommodation that had characterized elite behavior for centuries was challenged by priests, pastors, schoolteachers, trade unionists, and other local leaders. Irritations stemming from church bell chiming, processions or public commemorations could easily lead to street rows or other disturbances. Johan C. H. Blom / Jacobus Talsma (ed.): De verzuiling voorbij. Godsdienst, stand en natie in de lange negentiende eeuw, Amsterdam 2000. The geography of religion determined the degree of administrative

Open access

Michaela Strapáčová and Vít Hloušek

( Fennema 1997 ; Brug and Fennema 2003 ). Moreover, most of the mainstream Czech parties and other important political actors, such as President of the Czech Republic Miloš Zeman, are more or less fiercely using the antimigrant card as well. In the same vein as in a case of “anti-Semitism without Jews” ( Lendvai 1971 ), the majority of the Czech politicians opted apparently for populist rhetoric instead of an analysis of real challenges, risks, as well as the moral and international obligations stemming from the Czech Republic’s membership in the EU. The Czech case can

Open access

Frits van der Meer, Gerrit Dijkstra and Toon Kerkhoff

unitary state is composed of primarily general-purpose governments such as the central government, provincial governments, and municipalities, and (to a lesser extent) of functional bodies such as water boards. The preference for general-purpose governments stems from the emphasis on integral public service delivery and citizen involvement. The sovereignty of the state is invested in each government according to the responsibilities assigned in the Constitution and institutional laws. For instance municipalities are not considered to be solely derived from central

Open access

Vilém Řehák

very little actual change in the U.S. approach to Africa” ( Lawson 2007 , 9). Africa has remained marginal, and the US did not have a clear Africa policy ( Agyeman-Duah 2015 , 34). Expectations and Results of the Obama Presidency This brief summary shows that close partnership stemmed from shared security interests and was reflected in high levels of US aid to Kenya. On the other side, the US was much less important partner in investment and trade. Moreover, President Mwai Kibaki focused his economic diplomacy on China and other Asian countries under the so