., Grygar, T 2010. Alluvial and volcanic
pathways to silicified plant stems (Upper Carboniferous-Triassic) and their
taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental meaning. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoecl.
292, 127 - 143.
Mencl, V. 2007. Upper Carboniferous silicified wood
of the Intra Sudetic Basin: systematics and palaeoenvironment. 105 pp. Master
thesis , Charles University, Prague (in
Michal Bošeľa, Róbert Sedmák, Róbert Marušák, Denisa Sedmáková, Rudolf Petráš and Milan Barna
measurement in forest management in GDR). Allgemeine Forst- und Jagd-Zeitung 7: 301–304 (in German).
 LeBlanc DC, 1990. Relationships between breast-height and whole-stem growth indices for red spruce on Whiteface Mountains, New York. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20(9): 1399–1407, DOI 10.1139/x90-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x90-185
 Liese W and Dadswell HF, 1959. Über den Einfluß der Him-melsrichtung auf die Länge von Holzfäsern und Tracheiden (Influ-ence of shading on the length of wood fibers and
Małgorzata Wistuba, Ireneusz Malik and Marek Krąpiec
.g. Tumajer and Treml, 2015 ), air pollution (e.g. Malik et al., 2012 ), insect outbreaks (e.g. Wang et al., 2017 ), wind (e.g. Duncker and Spiecker, 2008 ) and other climatic factors (temperature, precipitation; e.g. Nöjd et al., 2017 ), etc . Disentangling the dendrochronological record of landslide activity from the record of the above-listed factors is all the more difficult because it is not landsliding itself that trees record but the tilting of stems ( Braam et al., 1987 ) ( Fig. 1A ). According to Wiedenhoeft (2013) , the tilt of a tree stem from the upright
 Schweingruber FH, 1996. Tree Rings and Environment. Dendroecology. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research and Paul Haupt Verlag, Berne, Switzerland: 609pp.
 Schweingruber F, Borner A and Schulze AD, 2006. Atlas of Woody Plant Stems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin — Heidelberg, Germany: 229pp.
 Seneta W and Dolatowski J, 2008. Dendrologia (Dendrology). Wyd. Naukowe PWN, Warszawa: 544pp (in Polish).
 Shroder JF Jr, 1978. Dendrogeomorphological analysis
Anthony Herrel, Cécile Moureaux, Michel Laurin, Gheylen Daghfous, Kristen Crandell, Krystal A. Tolley, G. John Measey, Bieke Vanhooydonck and Renaud Boistel
. L. Jr., Suffian, D. J., Bishop, P. J., Reilly, S. M. (2010): Landing in basal frogs: evidence of saltational patterns in the evolution of anuran locomotion. – Naturwissenschaften, 97: 935–939. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-010-0697-4
Evans, S. E., Borsuk-Bialynicka, M. (1998): A stem-group frog from the Early Triassic of Poland. – Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 43: 573–580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0031-0239.2000.00141.x
Fabrezi, M., Manzano, A. S., Abdala, V., Lobo, F. (2014): Anuran locomotion: ontogeny and morphological variation of a
 Decaulne A and Sæmundsson Þ, 2008. Dendrogeomorphology as a tool to unravel snow-avalanche activity: Preliminary results from the Fnjóskadalur test site, Northern Iceland. Norwegian Journal of Geography 62(2): 55–65, DOI 10.1080/00291950802094742.
 Dorren LKA and Berger F, 2006. Stem breakage of trees and energy dissipation during rockfall impacts. Tree Physiology 26(1): 63–71, DOI 10.1093/treephys/26.1.63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/26.1.63
 Dubé S, Filion L and Hétu B, 2004. Tree
Invasive alien species colonize very aggressively and forcefully, menacing native biodiversity. The success of invasive alien plants is due to their opportunistic exploitation of anthropogenic disturbances, the absence of natural enemies, free from herbivory and frequently their allelopathic competition. Invasive species can have a significant impact on development, affecting sustainability of livelihood, food security and essential ecosystem services and dynamics. Lantana camara is a documented weed of worldwide significance; it is indigestible due to its toxic chemicals and highly competitive. In this study physicochemical properties of soil were analysed from different high and low Lantana infested areas. Significant site effect was frequently observed than effect due to invasion status. The present study tested the impact of soil properties in the measured and calculated attributes of Lantana by randomly sampling soil from the highly invaded and less invaded sites in different habitats using the Modified Whittaker plot design. Results indicated that edaphic factors such as soil pH, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon, phosphorus and potassium content positively influenced the growth of Lantana and helped in its own further invasion process. These factors were also positively influencing the measured and calculated attributes of Lantana such as canopy coverage, average crown diameter, shrub canopy area, phytovolume and biomass from all sites. However some attributes like shrub height and stem diameter were negatively influenced by these soil factors. The present results show that Lantana invasion can significantly improve the soil nutrient level but also positively increasing the chances of its further invasion with more copious plant attributes.
Lina Golovneva, Pavel Alekseev, Eugenia Bugdaeva and Elena Volynets
An extraordinarily well-preserved autochthonous angiosperm herbaceous community is described from the Lower Cretaceous deposits of the Frentsevka Formation, southern Primorye, Far East of Russia. The locality Bolshoy Kuvshin is situated on the coast of the Ussuri Bay on the Bolshoy Kuvshin Cape near the town of Bolshoy Kamen. The plant-bearing layer was determined to be early - middle Albian in age. The angiosperm assemblage includes six species: Achaenocarpites capitellatus Krassilov et Volynets, Ternaricarpites floribundus Krassilov et Volynets, Jixia pinnatipartita S.X.Guo et G.Sun, Asiatifolium elegans G.Sun, S.X.Guo et Shao L.Zheng and two new undetermined species. The majority of specimens are represented by fragments of branching stems with attached leaves or fruits or by almost complete plants. Two species (Jixia pinnatipartita and Asiatifolium elegans) are also in the angiosperm assemblage from the Chengzihe Formation (eastern Heilongjiang, China). The angiosperm remains are accompanied by the fern Onychiopsis psilotoides which is represented by almost entire young plants. The plant fossils were buried during a single flooding event and remained very close to their original location. They formed a pioneer open herbaceous community, consisting of ferns and angiosperms with a predominance of the latter and adapted to colonize fresh sediments in periodically flooded areas.
The analysis of a taxonomical database containing Italian pollen and macrofossil records of the Messinian - Piacenzian time interval allowed us to evaluate the possible assemblage of different parts within a Whole-Plant Concept. The fossil plant parts that we deemed more significant were: “herbarium-like” specimens, foliage, female and male reproductive organs and stem parts (mainly woody axes). When it has been possible, we recognized these different parts as putative products of a single ancient plant species. Then we operated a random selection of 100 taxonomical entities (potential whole-plant taxa, indicated by the progressive numbers WP001, WP002, etc.) and we analysed their fossil record in order to quantify the proportion of ancient plants represented by one, two or more different parts in the fossil record of the studied area and time slice. Our quantitative analysis showed that 63 % of the potential whole-plant taxa are represented by a single type of plant part, 23 % are represented by two plant parts, and 14 % by three or more different parts. A few taxa were selected as examples to show in detail the implications of applying the Whole-Plant Concept; this involved a taxonomic discussion of Actinidia, Ailanthus, Engelhardia, Eucommia, Glyptostrobus and Taxodium.
The arrival of amenity migrants has significant impacts for many rural areas in economic, environmental and social terms. While the causes of relocation from cities to remote rural localities can be generally understood as attempts to change the way of life, the consequences of this phenomenon are relatively diverse. Perception of rural space from the migrant´s point of view stems partly from the so-called rural idyll, which shapes the image of the countryside across society, especially through media, tourism and recreation. This study aims to discover links between rural idyll and motivational factors of the Czech amenity migrants. Semi-structured interviews with the Czech amenity migrants have been used in order to uncover the social dimension of the phenomenon of rural idyll. Emphasis has been put both on the genesis of their relationship to the rural environment, but also on the consistency and differences between expectations and the reality of rural life. I identify the key role of tourism and recreation in shaping the initial perception of rural space, whereas the role of media is rather implicit. In the perception of amenity migrants, the initial image of rural space differed only slightly when the physical environment of rural space is considered but a mismatch is found between initial ideas about rural communities and their real experience after moving there.