(Transportation Science & Engineering), Vol. 41, pp. 97-103, 2017. 7. H. J. Cao, M. Rivoal, Z. Y. Pei, J. T. Qin, P. Sergent, and A. Droue, Parametric Study of the Impact of Hull Form Deformations of an Inland Ship on its Hydrodynamic Performances in Shallow Water Using CFD, 9th fluid mechanic academic conference, pp. 154-163, 2016. 8. C. Xie, J. He, and J. Qin, Numerical simulation and model test on resistance performance for vertical stem, China Water Transport, Vol. 15, pp. 13-14, 2015. 9. Z. Y. Pei, Z. H. Zhu, and W. G Wu
Zhiyong Pei, Qingning Yuan and Weiguo Wu
Katarzyna Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata Wistuba and Ireneusz Malik
We applied dendrochronological methods for dating landslide activity in the study area (3.75 km2), on the slopes of Sucha Mountain (1040 m a.s.l.), in the Beskid Żywiecki Mountains, in the Western Carpathians. 46 sampling sites were distributed throughout the study area. At each site we sampled 1-3 coniferous trees: Norway spruces (Picea abies Karst.) and/or silver firs (Abies alba Mill.). From each tree 2 cores were sampled: one from the upslope and the other from the downslope side of the stem. Based on tree-ring widths measured for opposite sides of stems we have calculated eccentricity index values and dated past landslide events. Mean frequency of landslides was obtained for each sampling site. Finally, the data was interpolated into a map of landslide activity. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation has been applied. For most of the study area we found medium (19 sites) and low (23 sites) levels of landslide activity. The highest level of activity was recorded for the largest landslide slope and for the one small landslide. The study conducted on Sucha Mountain has shown that dendrochronology can be an effective method for analysing landslide activity and may be useful in further studies, including those for landslide hazard and risk assessments.
Radu Lacatusu, Anca-Rovena Lacatusu, Mihaela Lungu, Mihaela Monica Stanciu Burileanu and Andrei Vrînceanu
The sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of Iasi, a city with 300,000 inhabitants, for domestic and industrial origin, was stored in a mud pond arranged on an area of 18,920 m2. Chemical analyzes of the sludge showed that, of all the chemical elements determined, only Zn is found at pollutant level (5739 mg∙kg-1), i.e. almost 30 times more than the maximum allowable limit for Zn in soil and 45 times more than the Zn content of the soil on which the mud pond has been set. Over time, the content of Zn in the mud pond, but also from soil to which it has been placed, has become upper the normal content of the surrounding soil up to a depth of 260 cm. On the other hand, the vegetation installed on sewage sludge in the process of mineralization, composed predominantly of Phragmites, Rumex, Chenopodium, and Aster species had accumulated in roots, stems and leaves Zn quantities equivalent to 1463 mg Kg-1, 3988 mg Kg-1, 1463 mg Kg-1, respectively, 1120 mg∙Kg-1. The plants in question represents the natural means of phytoremediation, and sewage sludge as such may constitute a fertilizer material for soils in the area, on which Zn deficiency in maize has been recorded. In addition, the ash resulted from the incineration of plants loaded with zinc may constitute, in its turn, a good material for fertilizing of the soils that are deficient in zinc.
Claudio O. Delang
China is the most populated country in the world, but has relatively little fertile land, and even less water. Maintaining the quality of its agricultural land is of paramount importance if China wants to feed its very large and growing population. Yet, China is one of the countries with the largest amount of polluted soil. This paper looks at the causes and distribution of soil pollution in China. It first looks at the amount of organic and inorganic soil pollutants and their geographic distribution. It then looks at the causes of soil pollution, making the distinction between agricultural activities, industrial activities, and urbanization. Pollution from agricultural activities stems primarily from the excessive amounts of pesticides and fertilizers used on farmland, and is mainly located in the south, where most of the food is produced. Pollution from industrial activities is due to airborne industrial pollutants that fall on to the land, and is mainly located in the west of the country, where most manufacturing activities take place. Pollution from urbanization is mainly due to the very large amount of solid, liquid and gaseous waste generated in a small area with insufficient treatment facilities, and exhaust fumes from vehicles, and is located around the largest cities, or roads. The result is that one fifth of China’s farmland is polluted, and an area the size of Taiwan is so polluted that farming should not be allowed there at all.
Implementation of the Water Framework Directive: achievements and lessons learned at the half-way mark
The Netherlands has a long tradition in water management, mainly stemming from the geography of the country. The ‘struggle with water’ has been organised from medieval times by the water boards (waterschappen), which are the oldest democratic institutions in the Netherlands. Nowadays the water boards, 27 in the whole of the Netherlands, are not only responsible for flood protection and regulation of water levels, but for water quality management and waste water treatment as well. In the years in which the WFD implementation has been underway in the Netherlands, several issues have arisen. Cooperation between all levels of government is key. This requires as clear as possible divisions of competences between the various parties involved. It also takes much time, especially in a process in which many matters have to be invented ‘on the fly’, such as criteria for designating water bodies, ecological standards, and the formulation of MEP and GEP.
Katarzyna Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata Wistuba and Ireneusz Malik
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José Domingo Villarroel, Álvaro Antón, Daniel Zuazagoitia and Teresa Nuño
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